09-2 scientific method PDBio 120 09

09-2 scientific method PDBio 120 09 - Scientific Method SB...

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Scientific Method SB (Science of Biology) - Introduction , Asking the Question , Deciding How to Obtain the Observations , Experimental Design , Communicating the Observation , Summary Statistics , Standard Deviation , Std Error of the Mean
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Scientific Method Observation and Question Hypothesis Experiment and Data Analysis Conclusion(s) OHEC
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Small Pox Virus Mortality rate of 20-40 percent Responsible for an estimated 300-500 million deaths in the 20 th century 1967 World Health Organization estimated 15 million people contracted the disease and 2 million died that year
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Small Pox Dr. Jenner Observed – milkmaids rarely caught small pox Question – Does a previous cowpox infection confer immunity to small pox Hypothesis – infect with cowpox, confer immunity to small pox Experiment – infect people with cowpox Results – Many patients immune to small pox Conclusion – previous cowpox infection confers immunity to small pox
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Observations and Questions Observations Are the source of questions, Observations of patterns promote curiosity to determine the process behind the pattern Good Scientific Questions Answerable or measurable Lead to experiments
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Optical Illusions – seeing is believing?
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Problems with Systematic Observation Scientific pitfalls: What we see and what we perceive may be different Objectivity may be clouded by bias in asking questions What is repeatable in one lab may not be in another Statistics can be used to manipulate data Intentionally or unintentionally As we sample nature, are our samples really representative of the entire population? All data eventually must be interpreted and assimilated
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Hypothesis Hypotheses make predictions from an experiment that can be tested scientifically, a tentative explanation or interpretation of data A good question turned into a statement becomes a hypothesis The experiment becomes self-evident Hypotheses must be verifiable or falsifiable Usually, scientific hypotheses are specific Easy to falsify and difficult to verify
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Facts Fact = a truth established by observation Datum = a single fact, either qualitative or quantitative Data = a collection of facts
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Laws Law = an explanation for something that occurs predictably under certain circumstances
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Theories Theory = an attempt to explain the relationship among a group of phenomena (including laws)
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Experimental Design Independent Variables – factor that the experimenter chooses to manipulate Dependent Variables – measured by the experimenter Parameters – quantity represented by variables (ex. weight) Dimensions – unit of measurement that applies to the parameter (ex. weight in lbs or kgs)
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09-2 scientific method PDBio 120 09 - Scientific Method SB...

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