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BILD2_Lect_2_2_12 - Figure 44.1 Figure 44.2 Selectively...

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Unformatted text preview: Figure 44.1 Figure 44.2 Selectively permeable membrane Solutes Water Hypoosmotic side: • Lower solute concentration • Higher free H2O concentration Hyperosmotic side: • Higher solute concentration • Lower free H2O concentration Net water flow Figure 44.UN01 Figure 44.7 Animal Freshwater fish. Lives in water less concentrated than body fluids; fish tends to gain water, lose salt Inflow/Outflow Does not drink water Salt in H2O in (active transport by gills) Urine Large volume of urine Urine is less concentrated than body fluids Vein Nasal salt gland Secretory cell Lumen of secretory Artery of transport epithelium tubule Ducts Nasal gland Salt out Marine bony fish. Lives in water more concentrated than body fluids; fish tends to lose water, gain salt Drinks water Salt in H2O out Small volume of urine Urine is slightly less concentrated than body fluids Nostril with salt secretions (a) Location of nasal glands in a marine bird Drinks water Salt in (by mouth) H2O and salt out (b) Secretory tubules Blood flow Salt out (active transport by gills) Terrestrial vertebrate. Terrestrial environment; tends to lose body water to air Salt ions Capillary Secretory tubule Transport epithelium Moderate volume of urine Urine is more concentrated than body fluids Key Salt movement Blood flow Salt secretion (c) Countercurrent exchange Central duct Figure 44.8 Figure 44.10 Proteins Nucleic acids Amino acids Nitrogenous bases 1 Filtration Capillary Filtrate —NH2 Amino groups Excretory tubule 2 Reabsorption Most aquatic animals, including most bony fishes Mammals, most amphibians, sharks, some bony fishes Many reptiles (including birds), insects, land snails 3 Secretion Urine 4 Excretion Uric acid Urea Ammonia Figure 44.14-a Figure 44.14-b Nephron Organization Afferent arteriole from renal artery Glomerulus Bowman s capsule Kidney Structure Renal vein Aorta Ureter Efferent arteriole from glomerulus Renal cortex Ureter Urethra Peritubular capillaries Distal tubule Renal artery Kidney Renal artery and vein Proximal tubule Cortical Juxtamedullary nephron nephron Renal cortex Renal medulla Posterior vena cava Urinary bladder Nephron Types Branch of renal vein Renal medulla Renal pelvis Collecting duct Descending limb Loop of Henle Vasa recta Ascending limb 200 µm Excretory Organs Blood vessels from a human kidney. Arterioles and peritubular capillaries appear pink; glomeruli appear yellow. Figure 44.15 Figure 44.16-3 Distal tubule Proximal tubule NaCl Nutrients H 2O HCO3K+ H 2O NaCl HCO3 Osmolarity of interstitial fluid (mOsm/L) - 300 300 H+ Filtrate N H3 K+ 100 CORTEX CORTEX Loop of Henle NaCl 300 200 H 2O 400 400 NaCl H 2O H 2O H 2O NaCl NaCl NaCl OUTER MEDULLA Collecting duct Key NaCl H 2O INNER MEDULLA H 2O NaCl 600 400 H 2O NaCl H 2O 600 600 H 2O NaCl H 2O Urea Urea Active transport Passive transport 400 300 H 2O NaCl H 2O H 2O NaCl OUTER MEDULLA 100 300 H+ Key Active transport Passive transport INNER MEDULLA H 2O 900 NaCl 700 H 2O 900 Urea H 2O Urea 1,200 1,200 1,200 Figure 44.20 Collecting duct ADH receptor ADH LUMEN COLLECTING DUCT CELL A decrease in the volume of urine excreted would be expected following cAMP Second-messenger signaling molecule Storage vesicle Exocytosis Aquaporin water channel H 2O H 2O A.  an increase in blood pressure. B.  an increase in the glomerular filtration rate. C.  an increase in aquaporin channels in collecting duct. D.  a decrease in blood osmolarity. E.  a decrease in sodium reabsorption in collecting duct. ...
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