Unit 3Transcription Translation Gene Expression Mutation Spring 09 for BB

Unit 3Transcription Translation Gene Expression Mutation Spring 09 for BB

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Transcription The Expression of Genes in the Cell
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Gene Expression At the molecular level, a gene is an organized unit of  DNA sequences that enables a segment of DNA to  be transcribed into RNA, and ultimately results in the  formation of a functional product The gene may be a structural gene that codes for  a final polypeptide product, or The gene may code for tRNA or rRNA as the final  product
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Gene Organization Sequences  organized in a  way that allows  the DNA to be  transcribed to  RNA
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Gene Expression in Prokaryotic Cells The Operon Jacob &  Monod lac  operon inducible
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The lac Operon
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The trp Operon
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The trp Operon
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Positive Gene Regulation
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Transcription Requires four ribonucleotide triphosphates to make a complementary copy of the DNA Sequence of bases in RNA is determined by the base sequence of the DNA Although the DNA molecule is double-stranded, at the time any particular region is transcribed, only one strands serves as a template RNA polymerase of E. coli is one of the largest enzymes known and can be seen by electron microscopy RNA polymerases are able to initiate chain growth directly without a primer
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Transcription Occurs in three stages Initiation: Recognition step Sigma factor binds to RNA polymerase which  synthesizes RNA Sigma factor also recognizes  the base sequence of a  promoter  and binds there Elongation: synthesis of the RNA transcript Sigma factor is released and RNA polymerase moves  along DNA strand RNA is synthesized in the 5’-3’ direction Termination: RNA polymerase reaches a  termination sequence
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Stages of Transcription
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Multiple GeneTranscription
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Eukaryotic Transcription
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Spliceosome
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RNA Processing
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Translation
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What is a protein? A protein is a polymer composed of  monomers called amino acids
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General Structure of an Amino Acid
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Amino Acids
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Amino Acids
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