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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 2: 9/20/07 14/01/2008 23:17:00 The Mystery Painting Revealed The painting celebrates the freeing of the insane 1887, Paris, to be hung in a hospital Tony Robert Fleury, Pinel freeing the insane Madwoman is having her chains removed Another woman is kissing Pinels hand to thank him for her freedom Why is it so hard for us to see the liberatory message of this painting? We would need to already have an idea of what madhouses looked like BEFORE the liberation mad people were chained and imprisoned; believed to be animals, sinners Madness and Medicine Before the Birth of Psychiatry What do we Know? In the 16 and 1700s, most educated people actually believed that madness was an illness Madmen not just beasts or sinners Humoral theory: four substances, four temperaments (blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile; sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholy, choleric) When people had these humors out of balance, they could become ill 17 th century discussions of madness Madness believed to be a disease, but it is a result of moral choices Shakespeare: we always know why his characters go mad Lady Macbeth sleepwalking scene o the deep source of her troubles lies in the state of her soul o she needs a divine more than she needs a physician Bedlam William Hogarth, Bedlam, 1735 o Head shaved, chains o Woman weeping over him o Background: many stereotypical images of madness: blood mania, mad scientist, mad astronomer, mad musician, mad king, mad pope, melancholic bishop o Women in dresses: coming to look at the mad people Bedlam was a terrible imaginary place; but also a real place o Began as a place of refuge in England; charitable institution o by 1403ish, Bedlam specialized more and more in hospitalizing mad people o never enough money; crowded, filthy conditions o People came to look at the mad people for a moral lesson; they would pay a penny o images of wild men in chains were cultivated for marketing purposes; tourist attraction In Shakespeares time, you had to be destitute to go to Bedlam; in the 1700s, people from any walk of life could end up in Bedlam. All crazy people went in. Rise of the Trade in Lunacy Undertaker of the Mind madhouses were directed by doctors (not so in the time of Shakespeare) As madhouses became established, doctors were necessary to certify that people were actually mad (protect people from angry family members, etc.) chains were used, but they also tried to treat inmates medically: bloodletting, water dousing So why isnt this psychiatry? Why are we asked to believe that psychiatry was born in the 18 th century? By removing the chains, people transformed the madhouse into something new: the...
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course CB 034 taught by Professor Anneharrington during the Fall '11 term at Harvard.
- Fall '11