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Unformatted text preview: HIST A-87 Final Study Guide UNIT ONE: PINEL, TUKE, KIRKBRIDE, What was moral therapy? What did curing madness mean? How is ‘being mad’ related to ‘being normal’? Or is it? How were the ideals of moral therapy translated into the practice of moral therapy and asylum management and design? Pinel • Pinel came to Paris as a young doctor and was there before and during the French Revolution. • Rational and scientific approaches interested him much more than the traditional treatments of the insane (which included bloodletting, dunking, drugging, and chaining people) • He removed the chains of patients at the Bicetre and the Salpetriere; people thought he was crazy—despite the national Revolutionary value of liberty, it did not seem to apply to the insane. • He maintained that the insane were sick people, not guilty people; he paid attention to them and started keeping case histories. He met with them, was caring, and took notes, setting an example of hospital research. • He researched and wrote extensively, publishing articles and volumes of books. • He also trained other staff members in his methods of care (moral treatment) and attention. • He believed, "The number of types of mental disease is limited (to mania, melancholia, dementia, and idiocy), but their varieties can multiply indefinitely." • Disapproved of the methods of most physicians, thinking that instead those who care for the insane should live with them, visit and converse frequently, study and record their habits with objectivity, be authoritative but kind, etc. • Main Point: Pinel believed that locking up the mad was wrong and that instead moral treatment and research should be implemented. He believed it was important to care about patients, interact and converse with them, and keep records. Samuel Tuke • Founder of the York Retreat in 1796: • Wanted a place of healing: stimulating physical well-being, orderliness and relaxation. • Wanted to allow patients a substantial degree of human dignity. • Based on the model of the family. Moral Treatment— • Moral Treatment, also known as Moral Therapy, was an approach to mental disorder based on humane psychosocial care and moral discipline. o Emerged in the late 18th century and came to the fore for much of the 19th century, deriving partly from psychiatry or psychology and partly from religion or moral concerns. • The movement was particularly associated with reform of the asylum system. Principles of Moral Treatment— • Conditional Kindness • Cultivation of self-esteem • Regular rhythm of rest and work • Fear Tuke’s Beliefs of Moral Treatment • Based on overarching idea that madness can be controlled most, if not all, of the time....
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course CB 034 taught by Professor Anneharrington during the Fall '11 term at Harvard.
- Fall '11