Midterm Study Guide-1

Midterm Study Guide-1 - Sociology 43: Midterm Study Guide...

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Unformatted text preview: Sociology 43: Midterm Study Guide 1-28, Motivation: Jon Elster, Motivations From Visceral to Rational Decisions should be made rationally, but are often crowded out by sexual desire, emotions, and anger Human motivations have two extremes: o Visceral cravings-have the potential to block off deliberation, trade offs, choice o Rationality-careful decision-making, weighing of consequences, concerned with finding best means to achieve a goal Between these two extremes, we find some behavior that exhibits both motivations o Ex. Man may seek revenge, but bides his time until he can catch his enemy unaware Visceral factors can also counteract each other in some cases also Interest, Reason, and Passion Interest-the pursuit of personal advantage (money, fame, power, salvation) Reason-impartiality; long-term goals, ideal of promoting the public good Passion-emotions as well as visceral urges; involuntary, subversive Id, Ego, Superego Id and superego constitute impulsive desires, while the ego serves as the reality principle Impulse control is necessary to prevent continuous negative desires exhibited by the id and superego o Control of impulses must be unrelenting, and heightened each time, to avoid repeated violation Taking Account of Consequences 1 Motivations either consequentialist (oriented toward the outcome of an action) or nonconsequentialist (oriented toward the action itself) o Nonconsequentialist arguments typically centered around human rights and liberties Social norms-concerned with taking actions to prevent an outcome (being blamed by others) Wanting and Wishing Wanting-wanting to bring about some state of affairs o Wrath-involved in process of change in state of affairs Wishing-wishing some state of affairs to obtain o Hatred, malice, envy-more concerned with end-result than process States that are essentially By-products Refers to states that cannot be realized by actions motivated only by the desire to realize them o Ex. Proust- a musician, may sometimes betray [his true vocation] for the sake of glory, but when he seeks glory in this way, he moves further away from it, and only finds it by turning his back on it. o Push versus Pull Motivation to change or engage in some new activity Ex. Push from shame more often the case rather than pull toward glory Motivational Conflict Conflicts inevitable; when in case where compromise is impossible, stronger motivation wins Visceral motivations often stronger than small voice of reason o Motivations sometimes affected by value placed on it by society Reason often used to justify a visceral desire o La Bruyere, Nothing is easier for passion than to overcome reason; its greatest triumph is to conquer interest. When one motivation is slightly stronger than another, it will sometimes try to recruit allies so that the reasons on one side become decisively stronger...
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Midterm Study Guide-1 - Sociology 43: Midterm Study Guide...

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