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Unformatted text preview: ← Sociology 43: Midterm Study Guide ← ← 1-28, Motivation: Jon Elster, “Motivations” ← From Visceral to Rational • Decisions should be made rationally, but are often crowded out by sexual desire, emotions, and anger • Human motivations have two extremes: o Visceral cravings-have the potential to block off deliberation, trade offs, choice o Rationality-careful decision-making, weighing of consequences, concerned with finding best means to achieve a goal • Between these two extremes, we find some behavior that exhibits both motivations o Ex. Man may seek revenge, but bides his time until he can catch his enemy unaware • Visceral factors can also counteract each other in some cases also ← Interest, Reason, and Passion • Interest-the pursuit of personal advantage (money, fame, power, salvation) • Reason-impartiality; long-term goals, ideal of promoting the public good • Passion-emotions as well as visceral urges; involuntary, subversive ← Id, Ego, Superego • Id and superego constitute impulsive desires, while the ego serves as the ‘reality’ principle • Impulse control is necessary to prevent continuous negative desires exhibited by the id and superego o Control of impulses must be unrelenting, and heightened each time, to avoid repeated violation ← Taking Account of Consequences 1 • Motivations either consequentialist (oriented toward the outcome of an action) or nonconsequentialist (oriented toward the action itself) o Nonconsequentialist arguments typically centered around human rights and liberties Social norms-concerned with taking actions to prevent an outcome (being blamed by others) ← Wanting and Wishing • Wanting-wanting to bring about some state of affairs o Wrath-involved in process of change in state of affairs • Wishing-wishing some state of affairs to obtain o Hatred, malice, envy-more concerned with end-result than process States that are essentially By-products • Refers to states that cannot be realized by actions motivated only by the desire to realize them o Ex. Proust- a musician, “may sometimes betray [his true vocation] for the sake of glory, but when he seeks glory in this way, he moves further away from it, and only finds it by turning his back on it.” o ← Push versus Pull • Motivation to change or engage in some new activity • Ex. Push from shame more often the case rather than pull toward glory ← Motivational Conflict • Conflicts inevitable; when in case where compromise is impossible, stronger motivation wins • Visceral motivations often stronger than small voice of reason o Motivations sometimes affected by value placed on it by society • Reason often used to justify a visceral desire o La Bruyere, “Nothing is easier for passion than to overcome reason; its greatest triumph is to conquer interest.” • When one motivation is slightly stronger than another, it will sometimes try to recruit allies so that the reasons on one side become decisively stronger...
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- Spring '12
- Sociology, Goffman, SOCIAL ASSOCIATION