Lec 10 - Higher Order Motor Control

Lec 10 - Higher Order Motor Control - Higher Higher Order...

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Higher Order Motor Control Motor Cortex This pdf file is enabled for commenting in Adobe Reader and all of the urls are ctive BIO334 - 2012 Craig Evinger active
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Motor Cortex Organization Primary motor cortex ( M1 ) is critical in the execution of movement. Microstimulation in M1 evokes simple movements of the contralateral (opposite) side of the body. The premotor area ( PMA M2 ) is involved in in the programming of complex movements in response to external stimuli . The supplementary motor area ( SMA M2 ) appears to play a role similar to the MA in movement except that it is PMA in movement except that it is active with movements initiated in the absence of sensory cues, internally enerated movement generated movement . Microstimulation in PMA and SMA requires higher current strengths and vokes more variable and complex Primary motor cortex (M1) is in the precentral gyrus , the gyrus immediately stral to the entral sulcus evokes more variable and complex movements than M1 stimulation. rostral to the central sulcus .
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Motor Cortex Motor Cortex –M3 M3 M3 M3 receives inputs from limbic structures and amygdala. M3 projects to the otoneurons controlling facial motoneurons controlling facial movements. M3 also receives inputs from frontal association cortex. These data suggest that M3 may play a role in complex, emotional movements, particularly of the face. From: Moorecraft & Van Hoesen (1996) in Pathophysiology of Motor Systems Principles and Clinical Presentation
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Motor Cortex Motor Cortex - Brodmann Cortical Areas Brodmann Cortical Areas 1 MA M1 SMA PMA Area 4 Area 3 M1 SMA From: Zilles & Amunts, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 11: 139- 145, 2010 Primary motor cortex (M1) is area 4 M2, Medial premotor cortex (supplementary motor rea) is in rea 6 M3 M4 area) is in area 6 M2, Lateral premotor cortex (premotor area) is in area 6 M3, Rostral Cingulate motor cortex is in area 24c M4, Caudal Cingulate motor cortex is in area 23c Brodmann Cortical Areas
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Descending Information From Motor Cortex Lateral Pathways The two major descending motor pathways from cortex are the lateral and ventromedial athways One of the lateral pathways . One of the lateral nerve tracts is the corticospinal ( pyramidal tract ). 0% of 10 yramidal tract 60% of 10 6 pyramidal tract neurons (PTN) from one side of the cortex originate from Betz cells in the motor cortex (M1, LPC, M3). The remaining 40% come from somatosensory cortex (S1). PTN from motor cortex terminate in the pinal cord ventral horn spinal cord ventral horn, particularly in hand regions. PTN from somatosensory cortex terminate in spinal cord dorsal horn regions. We name tracts by 1) where they originate and 2) where they terminate. Corticospinal originates in cortex (cortico) and terminates in the spinal cord (spinal).
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Lateral Pathways Descending Information From Motor Cortex In addition to the corticospinal tract, the other lateral pathway is the rubrospinal tract . The red nucleus neurons giving rise to the rubrospinal tract receive inputs from the cerebellum and motor cortex. Rubrospinal axons terminate in the ventral horn region of the spinal cord.
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course BIO 334 taught by Professor Matthews during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Lec 10 - Higher Order Motor Control - Higher Higher Order...

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