Islam - Islam 632-61 The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (first...

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Islam 632-61 The Four “Rightly Guided Caliphs” (first 30 years after Muhammad): Abu-Bakr: unifies Arabia Umar: conquers Syria and Lower Egypt, some of Persia Uthman and Ali: more of N. Africa, the rest of Persia Massive expansion and conquest in a mere 3 decades by 750, from Spain to Indus River Why so easy? Religious faith and zeal : “We re conquering because Allah helps us.” ʼ Weak neighboring empires : Byzantine and Sassanid (Persian) Empires exhausted by fighting each other for centuries Power vacuum cf. Peloponnesian War and Philip of Macedon Islam more attractive than Byzantine Christianity and Persian Zoroastrianism tolerant: no forced conversion offered hope in this world, not just the next Shari a law offers equality and justice and social welfare in this life, ʼ plus Heaven after death tax relief if you convert “People of the Book” -- Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians (monotheists) -- could
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course REL REL2300 taught by Professor Frazin during the Spring '10 term at Broward College.

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Islam - Islam 632-61 The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (first...

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