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Final exam Objectives - CHAPTER14 Learningobjectives 1...

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CHAPTER 14 MENDEL AND THE GENE IDEA Learning objectives Gregor Mendel’s Discoveries 1. Define the following terms: true breeding, hybridization, monohybrid cross, P  generation, F 1  generation, F 2  generation. 2. Use a Punnett square to predict the results of a monohybrid cross, stating the  phenotypic and genotypic ratios of the F 2  generation.  3. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: dominant and recessive;  heterozygous and homozygous; genotype and phenotype. 4. Use a Punnett square to predict the results of a dihybrid cross and state the  phenotypic and genotypic ratios of the F 2  generation. CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE Learning objectives: Sex Chromosomes 1. Explain why sex-linked diseases are more common in human males. Linked Genes 2. Distinguish between linked genes and sex-linked genes. 3. Describe the independent assortment of chromosomes during Meiosis I. Explain how independent assortment of chromosomes produces genetic recombination of unlinked genes. 4. Distinguish between parental and recombinant phenotypes. 5. Explain why linked genes do not assort independently. Explain how crossing over can unlink genes. Errors and Exceptions in Chromosomal Inheritance 6. Explain how nondisjunction can lead to aneuploidy. 7. Define trisomy. Explain how these chromosomal changes occur and describe possible consequences. CHAPTER 16  THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE
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Learning objectives    DNA as the Genetic Material 1. Describe the structure of DNA. Explain the base-pairing rule and describe its  significance. DNA Replication and Repair 2. Describe the semiconservative model of replication. 3. Describe the general process of DNA replication. 4. Explain the roles of DNA ligase, primer, primase, helicase, topoisomerase, and  single-strand binding proteins. 5. Define “antiparallel” and explain why continuous synthesis of both DNA strands is  not possible. CHAPTER 17 FROM GENE TO PROTEIN Learning Objectives The Connection between Genes and Proteins 1. Explain how RNA differs from DNA.
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