Exam 5 - Exam 5 Questions 1 What does it take for an...

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Exam 5 Questions 1.What does it take for an argument to be rationally persuasive for a person at a time? 2.What’s refutation by counterexample and how do you do it? 3.What is the difference between formal and substantive fallacies? a. What’s affirming the consequent? b. What’s denying the antecedent? c. What’s the fallacy of majority belief? d. What’s the fallacy of common practice? e. What’s an ad hominem attack? f. What’s a tu quoque fallacy? g. What’s an appeal to authority? h. What’s the perfectionist fallacy? i. What’s the fallacy of conflating morality and legality? j. What’s the fallacy of weak analogy? 4.What’s a causal fallacy? a. What’s post hoc ergo propter hoc? b. What’s the fallacy of mistaking a correlation for causation? c. What’s the fallacy of inverting cause and effect? 5.What’s an epistemic fallacy? a. What’s an appeal to ignorance? 6.What’s the difference between a faulty argument technique and rhetoric? a. What’s equivocation? b. What’s a red herring? c. What’s a slippery slope argument? d. What’s a scarecrow/strawman argument? e. What’s begging the question? f. What’s a false dilemma?
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Pop Quiz 8 (1) Most American presidents have been White. (2) Barack Obama is president. (C) Probably, Barack Obama is White. All of the premises are true and the argument is inductively forceful, but that’s not the end of the story according to the textbook. Why is that? Soundness: Discussion - Deductively valid arguments: o What if we don’t know if the premises are true? - Inductively forceful arguments: o What if we don’t know if the premises are true? o What if we don’t know if an argument may be defeated? Rational Persuasiveness - An argument is rationally persuasive for a person at a time when: o The argument is deductively valid or inductively forceful o The person reasonably believes the argument’s premises at the time. o It is not a defeated inductively forceful argument at that time. Defeated – the person reasonably believes the premises, but, nevertheless, reasonably rejects the conclusion Points about Rational Persuasiveness - It is not possible for the conclusion of a deductively valid argument to be defeated by a person’s total evidence – this is only possible for inductively forceful arguments. - Rationally persuasive arguments need not be sound. - Rational persuasiveness comes in degrees; it is not all or nothing - We should distinguish rational persuasiveness from persuasiveness. - Who’s making the claims counts to an extent. - Rationally persuasive arguments need justified premises. Logical Assessment Strategies - Conditional Proof o When the conclusion of an argument is a conditional do the following: Add the antecedent of the conclusion to the premises. See if the consequent of the conclusion follows.
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