Test 1

Test 1 - RCT Lecture Introducing Arguements Why? o Reasons...

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RCT Lecture – Introducing Arguements ‘Why?’ o Reasons to learn about this stuff o Curiosity about what’s true o A desire to make better life decisions o LSAT, GRE Justification – a good reason – that ought to motivate us to act or believe as we are recommended to do Argument o A set of propositions/ statements/ assertions where one is a conclusion and the rest are premises (convincing others) o Intended to persuade by giving good reasons Rhetoric o Effectively persuasive verbal or written language (motivating others) o Intended to persuade only by the power of the words used o Does not give good reasons - Can go together - Identify, reconstruct, evaluate Propositions - Definition (pg. 9): a proposition is “the factual content expressed by a declarative sentence on a particular occasion.” - Features of propositions: o Propositions are either true or false o Different sentences can express the same proposition. o Different propositions can be expressed by the same sentence o Props are true when they state things as they are o Premise and conclusions are propositions o Two politicians saying “vote for me”, say the same thing but means something different. o Different arguments in the same words, same arguments in different words. o Utter different sentences but expresses the same proposition/ Utter same sentence but express different propositions Aspects of Meaning - Rhetorical force o “Emotive” “window dressing” surrounding the proposition (pg. 10) o Expresses a rhetorical message given normal linguistic conventions o Adding more sauce or flavor to your argument o Intended to arouse motivation
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o Can be implicit or explicit o The rhetorical aspect of a sentence’s meaning o By its use of the emotive and politically significant term ‘single mum,’ might function not only to inform us of a fact, but also to manipulate our sympathies concerning the person in question - Implicature o Unstated but can be reasonably taken to be intended o Requires that the listener understands the relevant contextual factors o Contextual factors: Identity of the speaker Who the speaker is communicating with Surrounding circumstances o Can happen even when the speaker has no intention of doing so o Implicit o Telling the truth o It is also a way of communicating something without incurring the full responsibility of having explicitly said it - Definitions – tells us what it takes for something to qualify as a particular type of
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Test 1 - RCT Lecture Introducing Arguements Why? o Reasons...

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