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o …. More than one meaning
o fuzziness in explanation….
o Bank (financial bank)
o Ambiguity arising from the meaning of words or phrases
o Ex. Keisha was at the bank the night of the robbery
o Ambiguity arising from grammar
o Ex. Karen told us that she robbed the bank yesterday
o Indirectly assert propositions
o Ex. “you don’t want to vote for the silly candidate do you?” (You shouldn’t vote
for the candidate)
o Expresses the opposite of what it literally would express
o Distinguish from implicature:
o “I finished the test” vs. “I did wonderfully on the test”
o “It’s cold outside”
o “This laptop is too expensive”
o “Tallahassee and Atlanta are close to one another”
o Examples: “All,” ”most,” ”some,” ’many,’ ”a lot,” ”a bunch,” “none,” “always,”
“never,” “often,” “sometimes,” “a lot,” etc…
o Open to abuse
o Some are vague: “many,” “a lot,” “some,” etc.
o Often omitted
o Apply without exception o Ex. “always,” “never,” “all,” “none”…
o Tolerate exceptions
o Ex. “generally,” “usually,” “on average,” “normally”…
Rhetorical ploys cont.
o Trading on equivocation
o Trading on implicature
o Complex question – ask a person a question that presupposes a claim
o Changing the subject
Rhetoric: They want to motivate you with powerful words (not arguing)
o Appeal to novelty
Appeal to popularity
Appeal to pity
Appeal to cuteness
Appeal to sexiness
Appeal to ridicule
Direct Attack – a command (“buy coke!”) ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course PHI 2100 taught by Professor Mikepatterson during the Spring '12 term at FSU.
- Spring '12