Test 1

Test 1 - Argument a collection of statements some of which,...

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Argument – a collection of statements some of which, the premises, give us reason to accept another, the conclusion. Deductive – 100% certainty Inductive – conclusion not 100% certain Moral Theoric What should I do? Action What kind of person should I be? Character – (Aristotle ’s theory is Character based) Good people can do bad things, bad ppl can do bad things. Everything we do Aims at happiness Happiness = flourishing Instrumentally valuable – valuable because it gets you something that’s valuable; valued for some other reason Intrinsically valuable – good just because they are good; valued for its own sake Something can be both (ex. Friends) Happiness is the only thing we value for itself and no other reason. What kind of person should I be? A virtuous person How do I know if an action is good? An action is good if it is what a virtuous person would do. Acting in the right way at the right time for the right reasons Right/ virtuous action – mean between two extremes Virtue Ethics – Aristotle? o Focuses on Character, rather than on actions o Answers the question “what kind of person should I be?” o All human actions aim toward happiness o Happiness = eudaimonia or flourishing o Virtue is a mean between two extremes o I is found in a certain mastery or control over ones emotions, desires, choices, values, and attitudes o We determine the mean through the use of practical wisdom o Strengths: o Focuses on the whole person o Is sensitive to context o Weaknesses o Doesn’t provide clear guidance about what to do in case of a moral dilemma o No general agreement on what the virtues are Aristotle’s ethics focuses on rationality/practical wisdom and the role it plays in the good life, specifically in determining right action Hume rejects the idea that morality is based on rationality. Instead, he thinks that morality is ultimately grounded in our moral sentiments – our feelings about actions
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Hume’s Moral Theory o Rejects the following claims: o That we can discover moral properties through rationality alone o That moral goodness consists in reasonableness o Four Main Tenets of Hume’s Moral Theory o Reason alone cannot be a motive to the will, but rather is a slave to the passions o Morals are not derived from reason o Morals are derived from moral sentiment o While some virtues and vices are natural, others, including Justice, are artificial o That Reason is a slave to passions o What are the passions? Direct passions – arise immediately from the good/pleasure or evil/pain that we experience or expect to experience Desire, Aversion, Hope, Fear, Grief, Joy Indirect passions – arise in a more complex way, but still involve either the thought or prospect of pleasure or pain Pride, Shame, Love, Hatred o That Reason alone does not motivate Reason alone can never prevent or produce any action How are actions produced?
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course PHI 2630 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at FSU.

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Test 1 - Argument a collection of statements some of which,...

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