Research_and_Methods_Notes_2 - Chapter 9 Using Statistics...

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Chapter 9 Using Statistics to Answer Questions Statistics: Branch of mathematics that involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. o Two man branches of statistics assist your decisions in different ways. Descriptive Statistics Procedures used to summarize a set of data. Measure of central tendency: typical or representative score Variability: what spread exists in the scores Inferential Statistics Inferential statistics are used to analyze data after you have conducted an experiment to determine whether your independent variable had a significant effect. Scales of Measurement Measurement: The assignment of symbols to events according to a set of rules. Scale of measurement: A set of measurement rules Nominal Scale o Events are assigned to categories, classify your research participants as men or women, as right-handed or left-handed, as Catholic or Protestant. o Differences between categories are qualitative (kind) and not quantitative (degree). o Do number of individuals in one category differs as a function of some treatment? o Examples: Jersey numbers, telephones, zip codes Ordinal Scale o Permits events to be rank ordered; usually single continuum that underlies a classification system o Examples: college football standing, pop music charts, class standings, might divide participants up on basis of creativity and end up with three categories (noncreative, creative, highly creative) o Degree of quantitative difference that nominal scale does not have o Differences between consecutive values are not necessarily equal, top 20 football teams (difference between 1 and 4, not necessarily same as 6 and 9) –don’t know how much distance exists between ranks. Interval Scale o Rank ordering and assumption of equal distance between ranks; household thermometer, ACT, SAT, often chosen because no true zero. Ratio Scale
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course PSY 3213 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at FSU.

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Research_and_Methods_Notes_2 - Chapter 9 Using Statistics...

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