Exam 1 - Personality Psychology Syllabus Introduction In...

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Personality Psychology Syllabus & Introduction
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In this class, you will learn… Ways people differ from each other How psychologists measure those differences How those differences affect behavior in different
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What is Personality?
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Defining personality traits: A unique set of consistent emotional, cognitive, and behavioral dispositions or
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3 Levels of Personality Analysis Human Nature Individual & Group Diffs Individual Uniqueness
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Human Nature: How we are “like all others” Personality traits & mechanisms possessed by nearly everyone
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Individual & Group Diffs Individual diffs : ways in which each person is like/different from some other people Ex: Being high/low in sensation seeking
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Individual & Group Diffs (continued) Group diffs : how people differ across groups Ex: cultural diffs, age diffs
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Individual Uniqueness: How we are “like no others” Everyone has unique qualities not shared by any other person
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Traits: The WHAT of personality How people are different from each other They are useful because they can Describe people Explain behavior Predict future behavior
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Mechanisms : The HOW of personality How does personality affect behavior? Three ingredients 1. Inputs Becoming more sensitive to certain information 2. Decision rules More likely to think about specific options
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What influences behavior?
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Personality Assessment Chapter 2: Part 1
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Definition of personality? A unique set of consistent emotional, cognitive, and behavioral dispositions or
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Measurement ! What’s the first thing you learn in most high school science classes (particularly in lab classes)? Why ?
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What if you had someone in the lab and you wanted to measure how vampiric they were?
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Ways to measure things… Ask them (self report) Ask their friends (other report) Different kinds of tests Situational tests – E.g. Put them in a situation where they could act outgoing Biological tests - No opinion (Completely objective) Disadvantage: can be interpreted in different ways.
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Self Report Data Drawbacks People can lie E.g. job interview questionnaire s Bias. There are things people don’t even know about Advantages There are things people know about themselves that no one else does
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Observer Report Data Types of observers: 1. Professional personality assessors + Trained and experienced in assessment 2. Friends/family of P’s + More naturalistic + Can assess across social situations - Observer may be biased
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