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Exam 2 Learning Objectives Sum

Exam 2 Learning Objectives Sum - Exam 2 Learning Objectives...

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Exam 2 Learning Objectives Chapter 6: Genetics and Personality 1. Be able to define the genome a. All of our genes. 2. Understand the hierarchy in the genome (e.g. chromosomes are made up of what? Genes are made up of what?) a. DNA > Genes > Chromosomes > Genome 3. Be able to define behavioral genetics a. To what degree are individual differences due to genetic and environmental factors? 4. What are the ideological concerns surrounding behavioral genetics? a. Equality/ Fairness 5. What are the goals of behavioral genetics? (3) a. What % of trait differences is due to genetics, and what % is due to environment? b. How do genes and environment interact? c. What environmental effects are important? 6. What is heritability? What is environmentality? a. Heritability – How much an individual difference is explained by genetics. b. Environmentality – how much an individual difference is due to environment. 7. Be familiar with the misconceptions about heritability and be able to recognize examples a. CANNOT be applied to a single person. b. Is NOT constant/ unchangeable c. Is NOT a precise statistic 8. Be able to list and define the four methods used in behavioral genetics 1. Selective breeding 2. Family studies 3. Twin studies 4. Adoption studies 9. Know the difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins and be able to recognize examples of each. a. Monozygotic – share a single fertilized egg b. Dizygotic – comes from two separately fertilized eggs. 10. Know the assumptions for using twins for genetics research a. If MZ twins are more similar than DZ twins -> due to heritability 11. Know the assumptions for using adoption studies for genetics research a. Positive correlation between adopted children and adopted parents = environmental influence. b. Positive correlation between adopted children and genetic parents = genetic influence. 12. Which two traits of the big five have been shown to be the most heritable? a. Extraversion ( 40-60% heritable) b. Neuroticism ( 30-54% heritable) 13. Be familiar with the heritability of smoking, drinking, and alcoholism. Know the heritability rates of drinking and alcoholism (you will not need to generate them since it is a multiple choice test, but you should be able to differentiate them)
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a. Related to sensation seeking, extraversion, and neuroticism. a.i. Drinking (36-56%) a.ii. Alcoholism (50-71%) 14. Know that any variance not accounted for by genetics is accounted for by environment (if height is 90% heritable, it is 10% environmental) 15. Know the difference between shared and non-shared environments a. Shared – features that many people are exposed to. b. Unshared – features that some are exposed to but others aren’t. 16. Be able to define and recognize examples of an environment-genetic interaction a. People with different genes show different behaviors for different environments.
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