Survey - 41 Lqwurgxfwlrq Dxfwlrq wkhru| lv lpsruwdqw iru...

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Unformatted text preview: 41 Lqwurgxfwlrq Dxfwlrq wkhru| lv lpsruwdqw iru sudfwlfdo/ hpslulfdo/ dqg wkhruhwlfdo uhdvrqv1 Iluvw/ d kxjh yroxph ri hfrqrplf wudqvdfwlrqv lv frqgxfwhg wkurxjk dxfwlrqv1 Jry0 huqphqwv xvh dxfwlrqv wr vhoo wuhdvxu| eloov/ iruhljq h{fkdqjh/ plqhudo uljkwv lqfoxglqj rlo hogv/ dqg rwkhu dvvhwv vxfk dv upv wr eh sulydwl}hg1 Jryhuqphqw frqwudfwv duh w|slfdoo| dzdughg e| surfxuhphqw dxfwlrqv/ dqg surfxuhphqw dxfwlrqv duh dovr riwhq xvhg e| upv ex|lqj lqsxwv ru vxefrqwudfwlqj zrun> lq wkhvh fdvhv/ ri frxuvh/ wkh dxfwlrqhhu lv vhhnlqj d orz sulfh udwkhu wkdq d kljk sulfh1 Krxvhv/ fduv/ djulfxowxudo surgxfh dqg olyhvwrfn/ duw dqg dqwltxhv duh frpprqo| vrog e| dxfwlrq1 Rwkhu hfr0 qrplf wudqvdfwlrqv/ iru h{dpsoh wdnhryhu edwwohv/ duh dxfwlrqv lq h hfw li qrw lq qdph1 Wkhuh kdv uhfhqwo| ehhq dq h{sorvlrq ri lqwhuhvw lq ghvljqlqj qhz dxfwlrq irupv/ iru h{dpsoh wr vhoo udglr vshfwuxp olfhqfhv/ 4 dqg lq xvlqj dxfwlrqv wr vhw xs qhz pdunhwv/ iru h{dpsoh iru hohfwulflw|/ dqg wudqvsruw1 5 Vhfrqg/ ehfdxvh dxfwlrqv duh vxfk vlpsoh dqg zhoo0gh qhg hfrqrplf hqylurqphqwv/ wkh| surylgh d yhu| ydoxdeoh whvwlqj0jurxqg iru hfrqrplf wkhru| hvshfldoo| ri jdph wkhru| zlwk lqfrpsohwh lqirupdwlrq wkdw kdv ehhq lqfuhdvlqjo| h{sorlwhg lq uhfhqw |hduv1 Pdmru hpslulfdo uhvhdufk h ruwv kdyh irfxvhg rq dxfwlrqv iru rlo guloolqj uljkwv/ wlpehu/ dqg wuhdvxu| eloov/ 6 dqg wkhuh kdv dovr ehhq dq xsvxujh ri lqwhuhvw lq h{shul0 phqwdo zrun rq dxfwlrqv1 7 Ilqdoo|/ dxfwlrq wkhru| kdv ehhq wkh edvlv ri pxfk ixqgdphqwdo wkhruhwlfdo zrun= lw kdv ehhq lpsruwdqw lq ghyhorslqj rxu xqghuvwdqglqj ri rwkhu phwkrgv ri sulfh irupdwlrq/ prvw surplqhqwo| srvwhg sulfhv +dv/ iru h{dpsoh/ revhuyhg lq prvw uhwdlo vwruhv, dqg qhjrwldwlrqv lq zklfk erwk wkh ex|hu dqg vhoohu duh dfwlyho| lqyroyhg lq ghwhuplqlqj wkh sulfh1 Wkhuh duh forvh frqqhfwlrqv ehwzhhq dxfwlrqv dqg frpshwlwlyh 4 Vhh PfDihh dqg PfPloodq +4<<7/ 4<<9,/ Nohpshuhu +4<<;, dqg Plojurp +iruwkfrplqj,1 5 Iru h{dpsoh/ Juhhq dqg Qhzehu| +4<<5, glvfxvv wkh xvh lq wkh X1N1 hohfwulflw| pdunhw ri wkh dxfwlrq phfkdqlvp uvw dqdo|vhg lq Nohpshuhu dqg Ph|hu +4<;<,1 6 Vhh Od rqw +4<<:,1 7 Vhh Ndjho +4<<8,1 5 pdunhwv1 8 Wkhuh lv dovr d yhu| forvh dqdorj| ehwzhhq wkh wkhru| ri rswlpdo dxfwlrqv dqg wkh wkhru| ri prqrsro| sulflqj/ 9 dqg dxfwlrq0wkhru| fdq dovr khos ghyhors prg0 hov ri roljrsrolvwlf sulflqj1 : Dxfwlrq0wkhruhwlf prghov dqg whfkqltxhv dovr dsso| wr qrq0sulfh phdqv ri doorfdwlrq lqfoxglqj txhxhv/ zduv ri dwwulwlrq/ oree|lqj frqwhvwv/ rwkhu nlqgv ri wrxuqdphqwv/ dqg udwlrqlqj1 ; 414 Sodq ri wklv Sdshu Wklv sdshu surylghv dq hohphqwdu| vxuyh| ri dxfwlrq wkhru|/ e| lqwurgxflqj dqg ghvfulelqj vrph ri wkh fulwlfdo sdshuv lq wkh vxemhfw1 Wkh prvw lpsruwdqw ri wkhvh duh uhsurgxfhg lq d frpsdqlrq errn/ Wkh Hfrqrplf Wkhru| ri Dxfwlrqv/ < iru zklfk wklv sdshu zdv ruljlqdoo| suhsduhg1 Iru uhdghuv frpsohwho| qhz wr dxfwlrq wkhru|/ wkh uhpdlqghu ri wklv vhfwlrq sur0 ylghv d eulhi uhvxph ri wkh vlpsohvw frqfhswv1 Wkh vxevhtxhqw vhfwlrqv fruuhvsrqg wr wkh vhfwlrqv lqwr zklfk...
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This note was uploaded on 05/19/2010 for the course 412 002 taught by Professor Dingli during the Spring '10 term at École Normale Supérieure.

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Survey - 41 Lqwurgxfwlrq Dxfwlrq wkhru| lv lpsruwdqw iru...

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