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Lec 1 Introduction Analyzing Arguments

Lec 1 Introduction Analyzing Arguments - Lec#1 Introduction...

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Skills you need to do well in Philosophy Analyzing statements and arguments Imagining alternatives to familiar views and situations Stating things explicitly, clearly, and succinctly Thinking creatively What is an Argument? An argument is a series of statements where the last statement supposedly follows from or is supported by the first statements. The last statement is called the conclusion, and the first statements are called the premises. Example of an Argument 1)Everyone who lives in Los Angeles lives in California. 2)Alvin lives in Los Angeles. 3)Therefore, Alvin lives in California. Validity An argument is valid if its conclusion follows from its premises. or An argument is valid if it satisfies the following condition: If its premises were true, then its conclusion would have to be true. Example of an Invalid Argument 1)Everyone who lives in Los Angeles lives in California. 2)Alvin lives in California. 3)Therefore, Alvin lives in Los Angeles. Valid Argument Forms Substitute P for lives in Los Angeles and Q for lives in California . We can state the valid Alvin-argument in the following form: Modus Ponens If P, then Q P
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