Lec 7 Behaviorism and the Identity Theory

Lec 7 Behaviorism and the Identity Theory - Lec #7...

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Dualism vs. Physicalism (Materialism) •Dualism is the view that the mind and the body are two different types of stuff that are temporarily joined. •Arguments for dualism rely on Leibniz„s Law. Mind and body are said to be distinct because the qualities of mental states are different from the qualities of physical (material, bodily) states. •Physicalism (materialism) is the view that the mind and the body are both ultimately physical. The mind can be analyzed in terms of physical or material things because the mental states are physical states. •Physicalism is the view that “physical nature fully determines psychological nature” (Braddon-Mitchell/Jackson, p. 29). Three Kinds of Physicalism Behaviorism: the view that mental states are behavioral dispositions Identity Theory: the view that mental states are brain states Functionalism: the view that mental states are the internal causes of behavior These are kinds of physicalism because behavior, brain states and internal causes of behavior are physical states. Behaviorism •Psychological behaviorism is a research program within psychology. It claims to explain human and animal behavior in terms of external physical stimuli, responses, learning histories, and (for certain types of behavior) reinforcements. The founder psychological behaviorism was B.F. Skinner. •Analytical (philosophical) behaviorism is the thesis that mental states are behavioral dispositions. The founder analytical behaviorism was Gilbert Ryle. Behaviorism Common examples of dispositions: •X is fragile =df X breaks when it is dropped •X is soluable =df X dissolves when placed in water Mental states are behaviorial dispositions: •S is in mental state M =df S has behavioral dispositions D1, D2, … •S has behavioral disposition D1 =df S does A1, A2, . .. when he is in situation T1, T2 . .. Example: the mental state of being in pain is defined in terms of dispositions to do certain things. Inputs Outputs blood pressure higher than normal “What‟s the matter?” “I am in pain!” “Does THIS hurt?” “Yes!” More examples of behaviorism about mental states: •S wants ice cream =df S would eat ice cream provided he is not on a diet, ice cream is available, he has nothing
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Lec 7 Behaviorism and the Identity Theory - Lec #7...

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