Phil 1 PRINT

Phil 1 PRINT - Phil 1: Introduction to Philosophy Study...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Phil 1: Introduction to Philosophy Study Questions for Midterm Exam The midterm exam will consist of seven questions of which you must answer five. The questions in the midterm are similar to the study questions. It is a closed-book and closed-notes exam. Part I: Knowledge and Reality < What does it mean for an argument to be valid? An argument is valid if its conclusion follows from its premises. < What does the soundness of an argument consist in? An argument is sound if it is valid and has all true premises. < What does it mean for an argument to beg the question? An argument begs the question if one or more of its premises relies for its truth on the truth of the conclusion < Explain the difference between necessary and sufficient conditions. Necessary condition is when something is required for the statement to be true. Sufficient condition is when something is enough for the statement to be true. Examples: Necessary: If you can vote in the US, then you are at least 18 years old. Sufficient: If you are a sophomore, then you are an undergraduate. < Explain the problem of the criterion. Problem between two questions in the theory of knowledge: A) What do we know? Or What is the extent of our knowledge? B) How are we to decide whether we know? Or what are the criteria of knowledge? We need to answer question A in order to answer question B and vice-versa; thus, the problem is which question we answer first; three approaches. < What is a proposition? Proposition is a technical term philosophers use to denote what it is that we say or assert when we say or assert something; or what it is that we think or judge when we think or judge something is so. Since what we say or think is true (or false), truth (or falsity) is a property of propositions. A proposition is an abstract entity. It is something like a meaning. < What do Gettier examples show? It is possible for a person to be justified in believing a proposition that is false. The Gettier examples show that the traditional analysis of knowledge as justified true belief is insufficient because one can have a justified true belief that p, but lack knowledge that p. < Can you think of your own Gettier example? Natalia has evidence for the following conjunctive proposition: (a) Rosa is the girl who will get an A in the test. From (a) Natalia infers (b): (b) The student that will get an A has a red pen. If Natalia is justified in believing (a), then she is justified in believing (b). But imagine, that unknown to Natalia, she herself, not Rosa, will get an A. And, also, unknown to Natalia, she herself, has a red pen. Proposition (b) is then true, though proposition (a), from which Natalia inferred (b), is false.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
< “The external-world skeptic does not deny that most of your beliefs about the world are true.” True or false? Explain your answer.
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 5

Phil 1 PRINT - Phil 1: Introduction to Philosophy Study...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online