Lec 2 - Phil 1, Fall 2011 Prof. Sven Bernecker Slides for...

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Unformatted text preview: Phil 1, Fall 2011 Prof. Sven Bernecker Slides for Lecture 2: The Gettier Problem Five Main Questions of Epistemology • What is knowledge? • What is the value of knowledge? • What are the sources of knowledge? • What is the structure of our body of knowledge? • Can we know anything at all? What is Knowledge? • This questions asks for the necessary and sufficient conditions under which a person knows something. Reminder: • “A is a necessary condition of B” means that B cannot be true unless A is true. • “A is a sufficient condition of B” means that if A is true, then B must be true too. What is a bachelor? S is a bachelor if and only if • S is male • S is unmarried • S is human • S is of marriageable age • Etc. Problems with Conceptual Analyses • When one tries to analyse complex theoretical concepts, it is often difficult to find a set of necessary and sufficient conditions which will accommodate all the various intuitions we have about the concept. • Conceptual analysis depends on linguistic intuitions. Linguistic intuitions may differ between people and among societies. Linguistic intuitions may also undergo change across time within the same individual. The Traditional Analysis of Knowledge • Knowledge = justified true belief • Justification, truth and belief are individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for knowledge • This analysis applies primarily to propositional knowledge What are Propositions? • „Proposition‟ is a technical term philosophers use to denote what it is that we say or assert when we say or assert something; or what it is that we think or judge when we think or judge something is so. Since what we say or think is true (or false), truth (or falsity) is a property of propositions. A proposition is an abstract entity. It is something like a meaning. • The proposition ≠ the act in which the proposition is expressed • The proposition ≠ the sentence (in the case of utterances) or the brain states (in the case of thoughts) that express it • Amelia: “Alvin is a bachelor” • Jennifer: “Alvin is a bachelor” • Alvin: “I am a bachelor” • Alvin: “Yo soy soltero” • How many utterances?, sentences?, and propositions? propositions?...
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course ECON 25 taught by Professor Shirey during the Spring '11 term at UC Irvine.

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Lec 2 - Phil 1, Fall 2011 Prof. Sven Bernecker Slides for...

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