Chapter_03 - Instructors Manual Organizational Behavior...

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Instructors Manual —Organizational Behavior & Management, 9 th edition Chapter 3: Individual Differences and Work Behavior Chapter Synopsis This chapter introduces the variables that influence individual behavior/performance by focusing on five major variables: demographic factors , abilities and skills , perception , attitudes , and personality . The discussion begins by explaining the importance of individual differences and how demographic factors, in combination with genetic factors, attitudes, personality, and locus of control, influence work behavior and job satisfaction. The chapter concludes with a discussion of creativity and its value in the workplace. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, students should be able to: 1. Identify the major individual variables that influence work behavior. 2. Understand how diversity is influencing the workplace. 3. Explain what an attitude is and identify its three components. 4. Discuss the relationship between job satisfaction and performance. 5. Describe the major forces influencing personality. 6. Identify the Big Five personality dimensions. 7. Discuss several important personality factors. 3-1
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Instructors Manual —Organizational Behavior & Management, 9 th edition Key Terms attraction-selection attrition (ASA) framework —The concept that attraction to an organization, selection by it, and attrition from it result in particular kinds of people being in the organization. These people, in turn, determine organizational behavior. diversity —Refers to those attributes that make people different from one another. Primary dimensions of diversity include age, ethnicity, gender, physical attributes, race, and sexual/affectional orientation. ability —A person’s talent to perform a mental or physical task. mental ability —Refers to one’s level of intelligence and can be divided into subcategories, including verbal fluency and comprehension, inductive and deductive reasoning, associative memory, and spatial orientation. emotional intelligence (EI) —The handling of relationships and interactions with others. tacit knowledge —The work-related practical know-how that employees acquire through observation and direct experience on the job. cognition —This is basically what individuals know about themselves and their environment. Cognition implies a conscious process of acquiring knowledge. affect —The emotional component of an attitude; often learned from parents, teachers, and peer group members. cognitive dissonance —A mental state of anxiety that occurs when there is a conflict among an individual’s various cognitions (for example, attitudes and beliefs) after a decision has been made. extroversion —One of the Big Five personality dimensions; it is a trait that indicates a person’s outgoing, sociable behavior.
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