Chapter_04 - Instructors Manual Organizational Behavior...

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th edition Chapter Four: Perceptions, Attributions, and Emotions Chapter Synopsis This chapter introduces the variables that influence individual behavior/performance and it focuses on five major ones: demographic factors , abilities and skills , perception , attitudes , and personality . The chapter begins with a discussion of the perceptual process and explains why it is difficult to directly access or “fix” perception, attribution, and emotion in others. It goes on to explain perceptual grouping—they way we categorize and group information so that it makes sense. This is followed by a discussion of i mpression management and then a description of emotions: how they set people apart from technology, and how they are expressed. The chapter concludes with a discussion of emotional intelligence, a somewhat controversial concept that can have a profound effect on one’s career and personal life. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, students should be able to: 1. Explain how primary emotions can be observed or determined. 2. Discuss the potential problems one faces when using stereotypes to make judgments. 3. Describe the role that perception plays in organizing stimuli. 4. Explain why and where impression management tactics are used. 5. Discuss why emotional intelligence has potential for managerial use, but should be treated cautiously. 6. Describe how attribution can be used in evaluating individual and group performance. 4-1
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th edition Key Terms perception —The process by which an individual gives meaning to the environment. It involves organizing and interpreting various stimuli into a psychological experience. Pygmalion effect —A self-fulfilling prophecy that causes a person to behave in a positive manner to meet expectations. Golem effect —A self-fulfilling prophecy that causes a person to behave in a negative manner to meet low expectations. stereotyping —A translation step in the perceptual process that people use to classify or categorize events, people, or situations. prejudice —A stereotype that doesn’t change even when information disputing it is presented. halo effect —In perception it occurs when a person allows one important factor or characteristic to bias his or her view, impression, or evaluation. similar-to-me errors —Using yourself as a benchmark against which others are judged. attribution theory —A process by which individuals attempt to explain the reasons for events. distinctiveness —In attribution theory the degree to which a person behaves similarly in different situations. consistency
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Chapter_04 - Instructors Manual Organizational Behavior...

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