bio 15 and 17 - Chapter 15 Lecture Notes Objectives Explain...

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Chapter 15 Lecture Notes Objectives  Explain how organisms may be used as agents of bioterrorism. Identify the sequence and timing of the major events in the evolution of early cellular life, ending with the movement of the first life onto land. Distinguish between spontaneous generation and biogenesis. Describe the four stages of the hypothesis for the origin of life on Earth. Explain how natural selection would have affected these first pre-cells. Describe the relative abundance of prokaryotes on Earth and the many ways they affect humans and ecosystems. Compare the two groups of prokaryotic cells—bacteria and archaea. Describe three specific extreme environments in which members of the group Archaea are found. Describe the structure, function, and reproduction of prokaryotes. Compare the types of nutritional diversity used by prokaryotes. Describe ways that bacteria both harm and benefit humans and ecosystems. Describe the two processes that explain how eukaryotic cells evolved. Describe and compare the four main protist groups. Explain how these different groups impact our lives. Compare unicellular to multicellular life, and explain the advantages of each system. I. Review opening essay- Biology and Society: Can Life Be Created in the Lab? II. Understand what Bioterrorism, the different types, and historical cases A. Our society is currently faced with the threat of bioterrorism. In 2001, five Americans died from the anthrax disease in a presumed terrorist attack (Fig. 15 .6) B. The most frequently employed biowarfare agents have been bacteria. C. Various ways in which biological agents can be used: 1. Bio-warfare –the deliberate use of viruses, bacteria, fungi, or toxins to cause harm or death to a population. 2. Bio-crime- using biological agent introduced through the air, water supply or food in order to cause harm. 3. Bio-terrorism- intentional threatening use of biological agents to cause death in large numbers for political reasons. 4. Agro-terrorism- the threat to agriculture by means of bio-terrorism. D. There is a long history of organisms being used as weapons. Who When What Kappa 1386 French and Indian War 1767 Japanese 1930s USSR 1979 Oregon Cult 1984 Tokyo Cult 1990s Iraqi Government 1990s Earliest known case of bio-warfare.
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Plague (Yersinia pestis) infested bodies were thrown over city walls The British distributed blankets exposed to smallpox to Indian populations Chinese soldiers and civilians were poisoned with bacteria that cause plague, anthrax and cholera Anthrax outbreak Contaminated salad bars in restaurants with Salmonella Anthrax infection Killed many with missiles loaded bacteria E. The United States and other countries face practical difficulties controlling bio- weapons. 1. The U.S. opened its first biological weapons research facility in 1943.
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor Larson during the Spring '12 term at Jefferson College.

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bio 15 and 17 - Chapter 15 Lecture Notes Objectives Explain...

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