chapter 13 - Chapter Objectives Explain how...

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Chapter Objectives Explain how pesticide-resistant insect populations evolve. Explain how evolution underlies the unity and diversity that defines modern biology. Compare the ideas of ancient Greeks, Buffon, Lamarck, Cuvier, Wallace, and Darwin on the ability of species to change. Explain how Darwin’s voyages on the Beagle influenced the development of his thoughts on evolution. Explain how Lyell’s ideas impacted Darwin’s thinking. Describe the circumstances that led to the presentation of Darwin’s and Wallace’s ideas in 1858 and the publication of Darwin’s work, The Origin of Species. Describe Darwin’s two main points in The Origin of Species. Explain how each of the following provides evidence that evolution occurs: the fossil record, biogeography, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, and molecular biology Describe Darwin’s two main observations that led to the concept of natural selection. Explain how natural selection is more a process of editing than a creative mechanism. Explain what is meant by the phrases modern synthesis and population genetics. Further, define a population, describe its properties, and explain why a population is the smallest unit of evolution. Explain the relative importance of mutation and sexual recombination in the evolution of bacteria, animals, and plants. Explain how the Hardy-Weinberg formula can be used to determine the frequency of genotypes in a gene pool. Explain why this formula is a model for genetic equilibrium. Distinguish between the following sets of terms: genetic drift versus gene flow; the founder effect versus bottleneck effect; and directional selection, diversifying selection, and stabilizing selection. Explain why sickle-cell anemia is much more common in African Americans than in the general U.S. population. Detailed Lecture Outline I. Biology and Society: Persistent Pests A. Review the opening essay on Pesticide resistance B. But even as change characterizes life, so does continuity. 1. All humans are connected by descent from our African ancestors. 2. All life is united by descent. 3. This duality of life’s unity and diversity defines modern biology. C. Understanding evolution continues to inform every field of biology. Applications of evolutionary biology are transforming medicine, agriculture, biotechnology, and conservation biology. This chapter focuses mainly on the contributions of Charles Darwin as they relate to the origin of species. However, many before and during Darwin’s lifetime had different views about how life began on earth and
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what processes are responsible for speciation. In order to provide you with a glimpse of what these views were and are the following section outlines the views of early Greeks and others during Charles Darwin’s lifetime. II.
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor Larson during the Spring '12 term at Jefferson College.

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chapter 13 - Chapter Objectives Explain how...

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