chapter 17 part 3

chapter 17 part 3 - Chapter 17 Part 3 Objectives Describe...

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Chapter 17 Part 3 Objectives ü Describe the primate adaptations for living in trees. Compare the prosimians and anthropoids, providing examples of each. ü Compare the multiregional and monogenesis models of human evolution. Describe the traits of each of the following groups: Australopithecus afarensis, Homo habilis, Neanderthals, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens. ü Explain how modern humans are impacting the biological world. ü Give examples and specific characteristic of the earliest groups of primates. ü Know the difference between old world and new world monkeys. ü Know the difference between homoniods and hominids and be able to trace human evolution overtime. ü Understand the major primate evolutionary trends, which include changes in eyesight, posture, teeth and skull structure, opposable thumbs, and brain size. ü Discuss the two major hypotheses that attempt to explain where Homo sapiens arose. ü Understand the impact culture has had on the evolution of Homo sapiens Human evolution has always and continues to be a subject that sparks controversy. The material presented in the last pages of chapter 17 discusses primate evolution, and thus human evolution, from a scientific prospective. While this subject area may contradict your individual beliefs just remember that you just need to learn it for the test. V. The Human Ancestry A. The Evolution of Primates (Figures 17.39–17.40) 1. The fossil record supports the hypothesis that primates evolved from insect-eating mammals during the late Cretaceous period, about 65 million years ago. a. Those early primates were small, arboreal (tree-dwelling) mammals. b. The order Primates was first distinguished by characteristics that were shaped, through natural selection, by the demands of living in the trees. For example, primates have: (1) Modified Joints - limber shoulder joints, which make it possible to brachiate (moving by swinging by the arms from one hold to another) (2) Teeth for All Occasions - teeth and jaw size changed to reflect changes in diet (3) Power and Precision Grip - dexterous hands and opposable
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(a) nails that have replaced claws in many primate species (b) very sensitive fingers; (4) Enhanced Daytime Vision -eyes close together on the front of the face, providing better depth perception, an obvious advantage when brachiating (5) Better and Brains - brain expansion and elaboration produced a brain of bigger mass and complexity, especially for thought, language, and conscious movement. (6) Parental Care - care essential for young animals in the trees. (a) Primates are among the most attentive parents of all mammals. (b) Most primates have single births and nurture their
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor Larson during the Spring '12 term at Jefferson College.

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chapter 17 part 3 - Chapter 17 Part 3 Objectives Describe...

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