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Chapter 5 Learning-1 - Learning behavioral perspective...

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Learning: behavioral perspective http://allpsych.com/psychology101/learning.html (interesting link) I. Learning: Experience, Change, Adaptation, and… A. Definition: 1. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that arises from practice or experience. II. Classical Conditioning: Learning What Comes After What. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/conditioning.html (interesting link) A. Definition: 1. Classical conditioning is a simple form of associative learning that enables organisms to anticipate events. B. Ivan Pavlov Rings a Bell. 1. Reflexes: simple automatic responses to stimuli. 2. Stimulus: an environmental condition that evokes a response from an organism. 3. Pavlov discovered that reflexes can also be learned through association. 4. These learned reflexes are referred to as conditioned responses (CR). D. Stimuli and Responses in Classical Conditioning. 1. Unconditioned stimulus (US) is unlearned: Pavlov’s meat powder elicits salivation, an unconditioned response (UR). 2. When the dogs learned to salivate to the sound of a bell (previously neutral) the bell became the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the salivation in response to the bell is a conditioned response (CR). E. Taste Aversion: Are All Stimuli Created Equal? 1. Taste aversions are examples of classical conditioning. a. Taste aversions are adaptive to the organism as they motivate them to avoid potentially harmful food. b. Different than classical conditioning because:
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i. Only one association may be required. ii. The US and CS do not have to be contiguous. 2. The Evolution of Taste Aversion. a. The evolutionary perspective suggests that animals and humans would be biologically predisposed to develop aversions that are adaptive in their environmental settings. III. Factors in Classical Conditioning. A. Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery are both aspects of conditioning that help us adapt by updating our expectations about the changing environment. 1. Extinction: the process by which a CS lose the ability to elicit CRs because the CS is no longer paired with the US. a. Acquisition trials: initial pairings of a US and CS associated with conditioning. b. Extinction trials: initial trials without the UC and CS pairings. 2. Spontaneous Recovery: recovery of a CR after extinction. A function of the passage of time. a. Spontaneous recovery, like extinction, is adaptive. B. Generalization and Discrimination. 1. Generalization is the tendency for a conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli similar to the stimulus to which the response was conditioned. 2. Discrimination: organisms must learn that: a. Many stimuli perceived as being similar are functionally different. b. The organism must respond adaptively to each. C. Higher Order Conditioning 1. In Higher Order Conditioning a previously neutral stimulus comes to serve as a learned or CS after being paired repeatedly with a stimulus that has already become learned.
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