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CHapter 13 Personality

CHapter 13 Personality - Personality Key areas I...

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Personality: Key areas I. Introduction to Personality: A. Psychologists define personality as the reasonably stable patterns of emotions, motives, and behavior that distinguish one person from another. a person’s characteristic patterns of behaving, thinking, and feeling. II. The Psychodynamic Perspective: A. Sigmund Freud characterized personality as conflict, a dynamic struggle. 1. Drives like sex, aggression and the need for superiority conflict with laws, social rules and moral codes. At some time the laws are internalized. 2. The conflict is between opposing inner forces. B. Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development. 1. Freud’s interests were in neurology. 2. Worked with people who, for example, had paralysis of the legs in absence of any medical disorder. a. The symptoms often would disappear once the person recalled and discussed stressful events and feelings of guilt or anxiety that seem to be related to the symptoms. 3. The human mind is like an iceberg. The conscious contains the thoughts, feelings, sensations, or memories of which a person is aware at any given moment. The region that pokes through into the light of awareness is called the conscious. The preconscious includes thoughts, feelings, and memories that a person is not consciously aware of at the moment but that may be easily brought to consciousness. Preconscious mind contains elements of experience that are out of awareness but can be made conscious simply by focusing on them. The unconscious is the primary motivating force of human behavior, containing repressed memories as well as instincts, wishes, and desires that have never been conscious. Unconscious mind is shrouded in mystery. Contains biological instincts of Sex and Aggression. 4. Repression is the automatic ejection of anxiety-evoking ideas from awareness. Repression is a defense mechanism in which one involuntarily removes
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painful or threatening memories, thoughts, or perceptions from consciousness or prevents unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses from breaking into consciousness. 5. To explore the unconscious mind, Freud engaged in a form of mental detective work called psychoanalysis. a. Talk about anything that pops into their mind. b. Resistance: the desire to avoid thinking about or discussing thoughts. 6. The Structure of Personality. a. Psychic structures or mental structures that are the clashing forces of personality. Freud proposed that there are three psychic structures: i. Id ii. Ego iii. Superego b. The id is present at birth and represents physiological drives and is entirely unconscious. the unconscious system of the personality, which contains the life and death instincts and operates on the pleasure principle ; source of the libido and instant gratification.
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