101_12AI_neuro_7-ANS

101_12AI_neuro_7-ANS - now know some mechanisms for signal...

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convergence & integration divergence transmitter release now know some mechanisms for signal flow through individual neurons signal transmission spike generation spike propagation post-synaptic potentials short, medium & long distance effects Fig 4-19
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questions: where do the inputs come from? what stimulates these paths? where do the outputs go? what tissues do these paths control? now, look at specific circuits & functions
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recall goal 1) move (yourself & objects) 2) maintain posture 3) seek & ingest water 4) digest food 5) circulate blood 6) breathe; eliminate CO 2 7) adjust passage of waste 8) adjust light entering eye 9) transduce, integrate, process, route signals
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goal recruit efferents, afferents, circuits for various involuntary responses & voluntary acts 1) move 1) move limbs by coordinated contraction & relaxation of skeletal muscle 2) maintain posture 2) maintain limb position 3) ingest water 3) swallow water 4) digest food 4a) chew & swallow food 4b) adjust glandular secretions (e.g., saliva) 4c) adjust contractions of smooth muscle to move partially digested food through GI tract 5) circulate blood 5) adjust cardiac output 6) breathe; eliminate CO 2 6) inflate/deflate lungs 7) adjust passage of waste 7) tighten/relax sphincters in gastrointestinal & renal systems 8) adjust light entering eye 8) adjust iris (smooth muscle) 9) transduce, integrate, process, route signals 9) receptors (stretch, smell, taste, osmolarity, pH, blood pressure, light , touch, temperature, pain ); spinal circuits; brainstem centers; cranial nerves; cortico-spinal projections
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goal efferents, afferents, circuits 4 nervous systems based on location & what they control 1) move 1) move limbs by coordinated contraction & relaxation of skeletal muscle autonomic enteric somatic motor central 2) maintain posture 2) maintain limb position 3) ingest water 3) swallow water 4) digest food 4a) chew & swallow food 4b) adjust glandular secretions (e.g., saliva) 4c) adjust contractions of smooth muscle to move partially digested food through GI tract 5) circulate blood 5) adjust cardiac output 6) breathe; eliminate CO 2 6) inflate/deflate lungs 7) adjust passage of waste 7) tighten/relax sphincters in gastrointestinal & renal systems 8) adjust light entering eye 8) adjust iris (smooth muscle) 9) transduce, integrate, process, route signals 9) receptors (stretch, smell, taste, osmolarity, pH, blood pressure, light, touch, temperature, pain); spinal circuits; brainstem centers; cranial nerves; cortico-spinal projections now, look at organization of 3
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1 “nervous system” autonomic enteric motor location afferents in targets & related tissues efferents originating in spinal cord some cranial nerves within digestive tract brainstem neurons outside digestive tract some cranial nerves efferents originating in spinal cord function control of cardiac muscle smooth muscle exocrine glands endocrine glands involuntary control of smooth muscle exocrine glands endocrine glands both involuntary & voluntary control of skeletal muscle see Fig 7-3 Widmaier 08 Vander’s Human Physiology, 11 th ed, Fig 6-44 note: 1) this show efferents only 2) there’s no map of afferents
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101_12AI_neuro_7-ANS - now know some mechanisms for signal...

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