NPB101-Goldberg-MII

NPB101-Goldberg-MII - a l'iarne —-—— m NPB101.SOI...

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Unformatted text preview: a l'iarne —-——.____._____- m NPB101.SOI Midterm #2. (35ml 1! l /1 Multiple Choice and TrudFalse ldentrfi the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ll./ The transport martin-tum for reabsorbtion of substance X is 500 trig/min. If glomerular filtration rate remains constant at 100 nflfmin. What is the plasma concentration for substance X that will reach the threshold for the substance's Tm? a. 50,000mgxm1 E"\ =50b : 1 [U0 b. 0.20mg/ml © Snag/ml d. None of the values is correct. 2/ The glomerular filtrate includes 47 water, solutes including proteins, but no blood cells. b. water, solutes other than nutrient molecules such as sugars, amino acids and proteins. but no blood cells. c. water, all solutes. and blood cells. Cd) water, solutes but not proteins or blood cells. 3/ Most of what is filtered across the glomerular capillaries is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. (a True w r the ct» «.1 - b. False 4/ Which prOCess or prOCesses will produce the greatest increase in the concentration of a substance in the tubular fluid? a. Filtration and then reabsorbtion. Q) Filtration and Secretion but only to the Tm for secretion. Once the Tm is reached the concentration of the substance in the tubular fluid equals that delivered by filtration. c. Filtration and Secretion. d. Filtration alone. 6/ Arterial pressure is higher than venous pressure because @ arterial volume is smaller relative to vessel's capacitance . b. arterial volume is larger relative to the vessel's capacitance. *- 6/ The intrapleural pressuirfjimnore negative at end inspiration than it is at Functional Residual Capacity (FRC). Ii a True it Not 0 b. False H“ .. 693'5‘1’Ejection of the stroke volume from the ventricle begins 0 during isovolumetric contraction. ' g) -_ ventricular pressure exceeds aortic diastolic pressure. . when"'"aitnal" __ ventricular pressure. W "iv? if.":w“’"".l’r.’- "" “" _ .1 "-'r..-i;}’"'5r4;‘-".r_l, .;’;-.__. ._ - _. . I _ are. x *9. . foiloii‘rin'g' v'vill produce an increase in‘ 131% gm a; the"values of the high and low pressures ong a vessel fi-om (100 - 50 mm Hg — . respectively) to (lS_0 - 100 mm Hg respectively). Resistance is unchanged. radius of one of fOur vessels that are in parallel. The pressure gradient is 4’. Increasing the viscosity of the blood. The pressure gradient is unchanged. £17 All of the above. .9: None of the above. Initiating cardiac o t the mean Circulatory pressure mfiv ‘- \ increases arteri pressure but does not change venous blood pressure. fl b. increases arterial and increases vous blood pressures. (‘13.) increases arterial and decreases venous blood pressure. LEM) carbon dioxide to and remove oxygen from the alveolar a. Only the second statement is true. (3 Both statements are true. c. Only the first statement is true. ‘ I d. Both statements are false. it rial Blood Pressure will decrease \J (N 6 12. % with a decrease in arteriolar resistance. b. with an increase in arteriolar resistance. c. None of the choices are correct because arterial blood arteriolar resistance. pressure is not influenced by of any of the blood vessels and the largest surface area. T (7 2?. a. rue «I b. False fir“ W There is an increase ' ' activity to the whole heart. This increase in sympathetic activity would be manifested in the electrocar tograrn by shortening of the P-R interval in cardiac activation and by shortening the interval between R waves in successive activations. @ True b. False llanw M ’V‘ ‘b-M‘Q “in a WW ((1/va ID# __ j" ' ..' ' -- — _ ‘9 14. Statement #1. P02 and PcoZ in the systemic arterial blood, systemic arterial P02 is high and systemicvartetial Pc02 is' low. @ment #2. The total content (all states) of carbon dioxide in systemic arterial blood is much greater than that for oxygen. fitment #3. Part of the explanation for this increase in carbon dioxide content in statement #2 is there is more carbon dioxide dissolved in blood and carbon dioxide chemically reacts more with water. Only the second statement is true. Only the first and second statements are true. Only the second and third statements are true. All three statements are true. . Only the first statement is trueWON to“ 4 "fl "“ I, ----._._,_ a 9639's :1 At Functional Residual Capggijgi (FR -' “aid at the end of inspirationrthe transmural pressure for the lung and the elastic recoiIIsurface tension forces ol 0 pTfig—ire‘equatin'magfiitude and opposite in direction. True til; ' the" 9 . A; .J b. False ‘F‘ " P U5 Jigf : gran/b“,— «16. A segment of cardiac tissue has an effective refractory period of 300 msec. The relative refractory period that follows has a duration of 1'5 msec. The effective refractory period begins at the upstroke of action potentials originating within this tissue segment. ON A second wavefront of activation reaches this tissue segment 325 msec after the initiation of the previous activation. This second wavefront will a. conduct through this tissue segment but it will take longer for the wavefront to pass through the segment f‘ G. conduct through this tissue segment. - not conduct through this tissue segment. (3. Iii/Respiratory 983332 istédompensawd by metabolic alkaloais. Respiratory alkalosis is compensated by metabolic acidosis. ltgéffff: tithing} 4,}; \x3' 5"- '-----' . r:- .- .%\ a. G c. d. “firmer, sor Name Statement #1. The kidneys excrete the excess salt through inhibition of aidosterone secretion. Yoh'consume a large bag of salty pretzels. You become thirsty and drink a large quantity of water to satisfy _; your thirst. - l , Hi9 wtu nirU‘lLUJU “n tement #2. The increase in salt excretion osmotically pulls water with it, increasing water excretion and ging extracellular fluid volume back towards normal. Only the first statement is true. Only the second statement is true. Both statements are false. Both statements are true.. #20. There is a decrease in blood volume. Osmolarity of the blood does not change. As a result of this change in blood and extracellular fluid volume, you would expect 41'. A»: (9 d. e. an increase in Na excretion. an increase in aldosterone secretion with no change in ADI-I (Antidiuretic Hormone or Vasopressin) secretion. an increase in aldoterone secretion and an increase in ADH secretion (Antidiuretic Hormone or Vasopressin) secretion. Two of the choices are correct. None of the choices is correct. K Heart rate could be increased by e 13 decreasing ongoing parasympathetic activity only since sympathetic activity cannot influence heart rate in the presence of parasympathetic (vagai) activity. increasing sympathetic activity only because changes in ongoing parasympathetic (vagal) activity can only slow down the heart. increasing sympathetic and parasympathetic (vagal) activity. increasing sympathetic activity or by decreasing ongoing parasympathetic (vagal) activity. 22. The pressure and stroke volume ejected by the heart are determined by end diastolic volume and contractility. <33. 23. Which of the following will mm the stroke vol @ Increasing cardiac conTfic—Wlfigi: without any change in venous b. 9&3 d. 15 I ..‘ _ .. _ d. .I“ "'4' ' -I $166? P+su True Fal ejected by the heart? C0 : HR k 8V pressure. Increasing venous pressure without any change in contractilityof the heart. harassing venous pressure and increasing contractility of the heart. All three ofthe above choices are correct. nephron?. - .-. ‘ Above the threshold for reabsorbtion. there is a constant rate of reabsorbtion and what is not reabsorbed is excreted. ab? There is no filtration of a substance below the Tm for reabsorbtion of the substance. c. All the filtered substance is reabsorbed below the Tm for the reabsorbtion of this substance. d. Only two of the statements describing reabsorbtion are true. 1 None of the statements describing reabsorbtion is true. 8/ Recall the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. Which of the following will produce a greater increase in concentration (ml 02J100 ml of blood)? /> I - - Increasing the P02 from 10 to 100 Torr. C we“; . . b. Increasing the P02 from 100 to 190 Torr. c. None of the choices since the same increase in P02 will produce the same increase in {P0 k“ L / concentration. 7. Sympathetic stimulation to the SA nodal pacemaker cells will decrease the maximum diastolic potential (level of repolarization) and increase the slope of the pacemaker potential. @ True b. False 23/ Capillary filtration will increase by increasinkigZ Kf or decreasing plasma oncotic pressure."iTC. Q True tl'l' 3 TA "\ 'h ‘2‘“? b. False v L" P ' V 29. Recall the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. The partial pressure of oxygen in the tissues is 10 Torr. Fully saturated hemoglobin enters the capillaries perfusing these tissues. Over which range of oxygen partial pressure changes given below will produce the greater diffusion of oxygen into the tissues? a. A decrease in partial pressure from 100 Torr to 80 Torr. © A decrease in partial pressure from 60 Torr to 40 Torr. c. None of the above since the change in partial pressures is the same. the diffusion of oxygen will be the same. CB 7. 30. There are two populations of centrgl chemoreceptors that respond to changes in Pc02 and pH. An increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in systemic arterial blood with no change in arterial pH (pH changes are buffered) will activate both populations of central chemoreceptors. However, a decrease in pH with the PcoZ of the blood held constant will preferentially activate one population of chemoreceptors more than the other. a. True False . You increase tidal volume but respiratory rate remainsunchanged. Therefore, there is an increase in minute Ventilation of the lung. Compared to control dead space and alveolar minute ventilation, ..‘=.¥Ma.2aemw. i- Eb To!“ 113,: :i’ml’a I‘azl _ _ : '. . _ . . .. I _-- - - a fair-,5 i” h, mutation increase but alyeolar ventilation --; ‘H a“; K 2. You in-an airplane. Your leg veins are compressed for a prolonged period of time. As a of compression there is a decrease in flow of blood out of the capillaries in your feet. Arterial blood pressure in your legs is has not changed. These conditions will produce @ a decrease in capillary volume and a decrease in capillary pressure in your feet and a decrease in filtration across the capillaries in your feet. no change in capillary volume or capillary pressure in your feet, but an increase in filtration across thecapillaries in your feet. I 1 an increase in capillary volume in your feet, an increase in capillary pressure, and an ‘x:£"____ _ __increase in filtration across the capillaries in feet. ' d. a decrease in capillary volume and a decrease in capillary pressure in your feet, and an . increase in filtration across the capillaries in your feet. 33. The AV node is in its relative refractory period. A wavefront of activation arriving at the AV node would be expected to a. not pass through the AV node. é) pass through the AV node. 34. Antidipgtic Hormone (ADH. also known as vasopfiin) is “and stored§3r release in nerve terminals within firin ‘5'; a. Tru ' a!“ mm 35. The number of actin—myosin cross-bridges mobilized for normal contractions increases by increasing sarcoplasmic Ca++ in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. Q True ‘/b. False 36. The mean arterial pressure in a frog is less than that for a human. This lower arterial pressure could he a consequence of 4.’ the limited ability of the frog's heart to develop pressure. b. the volume of blood in the arterial system of the frog is large relative to the capacitance of the arterial system. (Q the volume of blood in the arterial system of the frog is small relative to the capacitance of the arterial system. sygthesizedin peurons within the hypothalamus 37.. Which of the following statements isiare 1mm in comparing glomerular capillaries to skeletal muscle capillaries. Glomerular capillaries are more permeable to water than skeletal muscle capillaries. Glomenrlar capillaries are mph; permeable to proteins than skeletal muscle capillaries. Glomerular capillary pressure is higher:_than in skeletal muscle capillaries. __ capillaries. haven greater surface area/mass of tissue than skeletal muscle VH3!" 3 '9‘ FM} Kiwi {firm .2!£".-.-'- ._ -...-..-.r--. +..- .'.-.'r n" . _ i; . Yong tnean circulatory pressfi‘for'th'e cardiovascular system. The heart is restarted. A liter of blood _ volume 125% increase__in_ volume) is then added to the cardiovascular system. You once again stop the heart ' rfi'trokd-r '-: v determine the mean circulatory pressure. You would then expect the new mean circulatory pressure to ‘ «awn-aw..- x. . $0.1 Name—.__—____ ' a. not change. 0. increase. c. decrease. 39. There is no c e in t tal c tent of ox en in the blood. Increasing the Pc02 in the blood will .' a. increase the quantity of oxygen bound to hemoglobin with no change in P02 = , .' increase the quantity of oxygen bound to hemoglobin with a decrease in P02. _ ' If decrease the quantity of oxygen bound to hemoglobin and increase P02. {1, 5+ : aid. ' . decrease the quantity of oxygen bound to hemoglobin with no change in P02. e. increase the quantity of oxygen bound to hemoglobin and increase P02. 40. At Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) alveolar pressure is 760 ton. The intrapleura] pressure is 755 Torr. What is the transmural pressure for the lung and what is the magnitude of the elastic mcinsurface tension f u rces of the lung? 6 The transmural pressure for the lung is +5 Torr. The elastic recinsurface tension force of the lung is 5 inward. D /b.’ The transmural pressure for the lung is —5 Torr. The elastic recoilfsurface tension force I; 10 t of the lung is 5 inward. 155 c. The transmural pressure for the lung is +5 Terr. The elastic recoili' surface tension for for the lung is 5 outward. ' f) _ , P _? ,1? The transmural pressure for the lung is -5 Torr. The elastic recoilisurface tension forcek Tam-D " m Did, for the lung is 5 outward. QT -.-._ ’IUJD 4'55" 3/ 41. You breath a mixture of 90% oxygen and 10% carbon dioxide instead of normal air. N ormal air has 21% oxygen and 0.03% carbon dioxide. Compared to breathing normal air, your alveolar and pulmonary capillaryfpultnonary venous P02 and Pc02 will all increase. . True “l0 ‘0 b. False ’24 .03) 42. There is an increase in arterial blood pressure. Afferent input from the carotid sinuses will act in the medulla to increase parasympathetic (vagal) activity and increase inhibition of sympathetic activity. @ True b‘gw b. False ‘ - Blocking activation of calcium current would a. prolong the duration of the Purkinje Fiber action potential. L \ C1 shorten the duration of the Purlrinje Fiber action potential. b. \ c. not affect the duration of the Purltinje Fiber action potential. ' it ~ )‘ 9 During the plateau phase of the Purlrinje Fiber action potential there is no inward or outward current flow. ' ' a. . True , _. . ' ' .- - I'?'I5}¥I"-:'.IL'L-II-.' . I. I .' . . . ' . g <5: . 7.. 3"” :3; 4a . - ~- - 5- '-- .r'._v ' . - -- ‘.__ . \ =r'éggnt - - u_t lungs to the central nervous system would be expected to _ _ .. .- vn. -.-.T.--.‘..n_‘.-,a:3.-_‘.\-u1’-'...'a'- --c-.-- - .- JHM ‘ 1...; w ‘- 1 .'I-.“-'~Jié:‘-"fi'}";~s'-!1 -' - I, .:::’:‘._"‘ '- II 1,- . . .'_ I .f! .—- .1 -‘. I of . _- - _ r -_y. . : ~-.-.- _ \. {*1 Magi. :3." f. .g -- - -. 4 .-.' I _ They would not change from normal ventilation with an PRC. During inspiration. pulmonary capillary P02 would decrease and pulmonary capillary Pc02 would increase. During expiration, pulmonary capfllarero2 would increase and pulmonary capillary Pc02 would decrease. - -‘ " - x...) During law pulmonary capillary P02 would u creas . and pulmonary capillary . Pc02 wou ecrease. [luring expiration, pulmonary capillary P02 would decrease and pu'lmOnary capillary PcoZ would increase. p xvi 47. During the upstroke of a Purltinje fiber action potential there is an increase compared to the resting.r membrane potential a. in the number of open Na ant®hannels.. b. in the number of open Na channels only. c. in the number of open Na and Ca Channels:_ lg, "lithenHmberoiopenNarea'and‘K‘EfiaTn'fi—E n /" ' _ _ ___ ._ . . 48. Regarding the electrocardiogram: -—9 a P wave represents depolarization of atrial muscle. You cannot directly observe and directly record activation of Hie SA node. XV nI ode or His bundle in the electrocardiogram. However, you can infer the activation of these structures from the presence of other components in the electrocardiogram. / b. The electrocardiogram records electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. @ P wave represents depolarization of but not atrial muscle. The QRS is depolarization of ventricular muscle. The wave is atrial repolarization. unctional Residual Capacity (FRC) in the respiratory system, what would you expect to P02 and PcoZ during the inspiratory and expiratory phases of normal tidal no ' ' , arr ows mto ll - -l eoli during inspiration and most of the air is emptied from the ‘ acidosis there is an respiratory compensation that reduces both acid (H+. '.- returning pH back towards 7.4. ' ; : ._'. _ __ -Sta s state, the kidneys excrete H-I- in the form of NH4+, and reabsorb. regenerate and " . plasma HC03- lost to the increase in ventilation. @ Only the second statement is true. b. Both statements are false. c. Both statements are true. d. Only the first statement is true. 50. During the pacemaker potential (Diastolic Depolarization) of the SA nodal paCemaker cell there is an increase in outward positive current flow. True 13. False ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course NPB 101 taught by Professor Fuller,charles/goldberg,jack during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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NPB101-Goldberg-MII - a l'iarne —-—— m NPB101.SOI...

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