101_12AI_neuro_1_organization

101_12AI_neuro_1_organization - yesterday nervous system 13...

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yesterday a) what the nervous system responds to b) how it regulates tissues and organ systems (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, digestive system. ..) nervous system 13 days, 50 min/ea. .. essentially one 11-hr lecture primary interests are. .. therefore, learn . .. a) structural organization b) signal generation c) signal propagation d) electrical responses Fig 5-1 note errors: 1) retina is CNS 2) motoneurons are CNS
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stimuli ‘receptor’ (i.e., responsive) cells light photoreceptors in retina muscle stretch stretch receptors in muscle muscle/tendon tension tension receptors within tendons sound, linear/rotational acceleration hair cells in 3 parts of inner ear sweet, bitter, sour, salt taste receptors in tongue blood plasma osmolarity osmoreceptors in hypothalamus change in blood pressure baroreceptors e.g, aortic arch stretch, peptides, fat, pH, osmolarity receptors in small intestine touch, temperature, pain receptors in skin what does the nervous system respond to? note: the specificity of these responses imply these cells are structurally and/or biophysically specialized. we will mention ~10 different types of receptor cells. in several cases, the mechanisms are not known. in the absence of stimuli, cells are said to be “at rest” in the presence of appropriate stimuli, they might “respond” light dark add chemical remove chemical relax stretch ‘at rest’ ‘resting’ stretch receptor chemoreceptor photoreceptor ‘stimulated’ ‘activated’ ‘responding’
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Fig 5-1 what pathways do these signals activate? see 2 anatomical divisions afferent neurons afferent neurons send signals toward the spinal cord, toward the brain, or to higher levels within the CNS 1) from the periphery toward the spinal cord 2) toward the brain ( from the periphery & spinal cord) 3) from “lower” to “higher” levels of the spinal cord 4) from “lower” to “higher” levels of the brain
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efferent neurons send signals away from the spinal cord or the brain efferent neurons 1) from higher to lower levels of the brain 2) away from the brain (to cells in the head & spinal cord) 3) from higher to lower levels of the spinal cord 4) away from the spinal cord (to the periphery) Fig 5-1 note: 1) the afferent cells stimulated by specific stimuli are the receptor cells. 2) single afferent cells can communicate directly with efferent cells. 3) or the afferent path can consist of a sequence of several cells; the efferent path might also consist of several cells. 4) some cells send signals over long distances. these are anatomically & biophysically specialized so that signals travel quickly & reliably . 5) afferent & efferent signals typically travel only 1 direction – cells have a polarity . afferent a.k.a. sensory receptor cell efferent afferent efferent interneurons i.e. “ intervening” npb101-w2012-ishida
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what happens along the afferent & efferent paths?
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course NPB 101 taught by Professor Fuller,charles/goldberg,jack during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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101_12AI_neuro_1_organization - yesterday nervous system 13...

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