101_12AI_neuro_3_E_rest__

101_12AI_neuro_3_E_rest__ - summary overall functions...

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neurons can… thus, neurons have… rest leak (&, in some cells, other) channels transduce stimulus energy into electrical signals stimulus-gated channels generate a spike voltage-gated Na & K channels release neurotransmitter onto other neurons & onto other tissues (muscle, etc) voltage-gated Ca channels respond to input from other neurons transmitter-gated channels transduce stimuli process signals produce involuntary responses generate & control behavior extract information & intellectual activity overall functions afferent & efferent signals receptor ending, dendrite, axon, terminal, polarity, rest, response, neurotransmitter today & next week 4 cells “responding” 1 2 3 4 summary formation of extracellular fluid in periphery & in CNS
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1) measure the voltage across the membrane. 2) plot the voltage as a function of time. 3) present or remove the stimulus, or change the stimulus intensity. 1 2 3
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1) very negative resting potentials e.g., ganglion cells in retina 2) less negative resting potentials e.g., photoreceptors 3) oscillating rhythm e.g., gastrointestinal system 4) pacemaker potential e.g., cardiac SA node -67 mV -32 mV Baylor 84 J Physiol Baylor 79 J Physiol Horowitz 99 Ann Rev Physiol examples of “resting potential” Kaupp 01 Ann Rev Physiol for now, ignore the response components
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start with the easiest case 1) normal Na & K concentrations in extracellular fluid & cytoplasm, abbreviate these as [Na] o & [Na] i and [K] o & [K] i 2) cell membrane is permeable to K + ions
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