101_12AI_renal_5_hormonal_reg_n

101_12AI_renal_5_hormonal_reg_n - this lecture illustrates:...

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this lecture illustrates: 1) the basic principles of this course: how organ systems work together to maintain optimal conditions in our bodies for survival, & how these work in response to major challenges 2) the scope of the problem faced by the renal system: recall that the choroid plexus could make a constant fluid volume and composition by making a small volume everyday. but that the kidneys can’t do this: the blood must be circulated in large volumes to be oxygenated, but there are many ways that the blood composition can be altered (e.g. metabolism & catabolism leading to acid loads). 3) thus the renal system takes a “ approach: a very large variety of tissues and mechanisms used by the body to maintain GFR, fluid volume & fluid composition 4) you’ll see structures & mechanisms that don’t seem to make sense – why the blood should route through the lungs to pitch-in, how the podocytes can change the width of the filtration slits, etc. – but all of this makes sense if you look from far enough away.
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what happens if … a) change in blood pressure b) change in blood volume (e.g., hemorrhage) c) change in blood composition ** decrease in blood pH (“acidosis”) ** excess Na + intake ** change in osmolarity regulate GFR, filtration, reabsorption, secretion, & thirst-driven behavior 1) restore GFR to normal values 2) adjust urine volume & composition 3) maintain body fluid composition & volume challenges: goals: solutions:
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1) intrinsic - myogenic 2) local feedback - tubuloglomerular feedback 3) change in filtration coefficient 4) baroreceptor reflex - changes in sympathetic input 5) osmoreceptor response 6) hormones - angiotensin, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, ADH summary these controls involve 1) sensory cells in the kidney, brain, aorta, carotid artery 2) hormones and enzyme (released by or traveling thru. ..) a) adrenal cortex (perimeter of adrenal medulla) b) lung c) kidney d) heart 3) responses of smooth muscle and epithelial cells 4) behavior
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regulation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) start with… we will see at least 6 ways. .. 5 of these adjust: blood flow to glomerulus (intrinsic, local feedback, ANS, angiotensin generated in blood, atrial natriuretic peptide from heart) 1 adjusts: size of filtration slits
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GFR is constant at rest, but it can change in 3 basic ways : 1) the initial response to an increase in arterial blood pressure is: GFR 2) the initial response to vasoconstriction: GFR 3) the initial response to vasodilation: GFR 1 2 3 Figs 14-9 &14-10 these changes occur momentarily & are not examples of “regulation”. regulation is a response to prolonged changes (e.g., in BP, volume & composition). ..
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what if mean arterial pressure (MAP) increases from its mean value (93 mm Hg)? GFR initially increases, then autoregulatory mechanisms help decrease GFR. one mechanism
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course NPB NPB101 taught by Professor Weidner during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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101_12AI_renal_5_hormonal_reg_n - this lecture illustrates:...

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