Respiratory system lectures 24-26 w2012 FINAL

Respiratory system lectures 24-26 w2012 FINAL - The number...

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l The number of molecules expired per breath by an adult human being is about 10 22 . The entire atmosphere of earth contains about 10 44 molecules. Thus, a single molecule is to a breath as that breath is to the earth ` s atmosphere. Stated in more picturesque terms, this calculation would mean that if the molecules expired with the last breath of Julius Caesar (or Cleopatra), were mixed uniformly (and indestructibly) throughout the atmosphere, then each breath we take should contain on the average one molecule from that historic exhalation. z -J. Jeans* The Respiratory System Lectures 24-26 Recommended reading: Sherwood 7th edition Chapter 13 pp. 461-498 *Quoted from Edward P. Radford Jr., The Physics of Gases, in Handbook of Physiology , Section 3: Respiration, Volume 1 p. 132 O 2 , Brute?
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Internal versus external respiration • Anatomy of the respiratory system - Respiratory airways • Matching blood flow to airflow • Focus on alveoli: site of gas exchange - Role of pulmonary surfactant • Mechanism of ventilation - Important pressure differences - Inspiration/expiration mechanics • Gas exchange at alveoli and tissues • Gas transport: O 2 versus CO 2 - Properties of hemoglobin - Oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve Topics to cover in these lectures
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Fig. 13-1, p. 462 Respiration General function is to obtain O 2 for use by the body ` s cells and to eliminate the CO 2 the body cells produce Encompasses two separate but related processes: External respiration Internal (cellular) respiration
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Respiratory airways leading into the lungs Lungs Structures of the thorax involved in producing movement of air through the airways into and out of the lungs Respiratory System Next page Intercostal muscles Diaphragm Fig. 13-2, p. 463
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Respiratory Airways Trachea and larger bronchi Fairly rigid, nonmuscular tubes Rings of cartilage prevent collapse Bronchioles No cartilage to hold them open Walls contain smooth muscle innervated by the autonomic nervous system: Parasympathetic stimulation constricts Sympathetic stimulation (weakly) relaxes Epinephrine relaxes ( β 2 receptors) Fig. 13-2, p. 463
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Respiratory system lectures 24-26 w2012 FINAL - The number...

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