Lect10_17MR2011_BIOL1010 - Lecture 10 Animal Behaviour...

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1 Lecture 10 : Animal Behaviour; Prions Outline: Animals cont’d Animal Behaviour cont’d Innate behaviors cont’d Environmental effects Evolution of behavior Foraging Mating systems Altruism Prion diseases in humans and other animals Kuru, Mad Cow & Scrapi C.J.D. & variant C.J.D. The prion protein T.S.E. development Conformational hypothesis TSE species barrier Genetic susceptibility Readings: Ch. 40 p.972-3, 988-97; Ch. 22 p. 492-4 Next week: Ch. 3 p. 56-63; Ch. 46 Biol 1010 Mar 17 2011
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2 Innate Behaviours = “Instinctive” behaviours that are not learned 1. Fixed action patterns 2. Oriented movements 3. Animal signals Recall
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3 4. Mating and Parental Behaviour Innate behaviour Prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster Unusual among mammals Monogamous Males help females care for young Male forms pair bond with mate Becomes very aggressive towards all other voles, except own mate
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4 Arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurotransmitter in the brains of mammals In prairie voles, released in the brain during mating
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5 AVP receptors are distributed differently in the brains of prairie voles compared with other voles Innate behaviour - mating and parental e.g. montane voles ( Microtus montanus )--> have a promiscuous mating system
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6 Innate behaviour - mating and parental Genetically modified mice were created that have the AVP receptor gene from prairie voles distribution of AVP receptor protein in their brains matches that of prairie voles show same pair bonding and aggressive behaviour as prairie voles Single gene (AVP receptor) can influence complex behaviours like bonding and aggression
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7 Environmental effects on behaviour California mouse, Peromyscus californicus Monogamous; males participate in parental care Males aggressive (even before mating)
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8 Environmental effects on behaviour Cross-fostering experiment with white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus Non-monogamous Little parental care Non-aggressive
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9 Environmental effects on behaviour Results Male CM raised by WFM: Less aggressive Less parental care Lower levels of AVP than when raised by own species Male WFM raised by CM: More aggressive (…but still no parental care) Experiences during development can lead to changes in parental and aggressive behaviours
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10 Environmental effects on behaviour = the modification of behaviour based on specific experiences 1. Habituation = The loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey no info E.g. “cry wolf” effect: alarm calls ignored after repeated calls that are not followed by predator attack Allows animals to ignore stimuli that don’t affect survival and reproduction Learning
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11 Environmental effects on behaviour - learning 2. Imprinting = Learned behaviour acquired during a sensitive period in development Young geese follow and imprint on (learn to recognize) their mother during the first few hours after hatching.
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