Week 4; Perspectives Paper-Nicole Ureste-Valenzuela

Week 4; Perspectives Paper-Nicole Ureste-Valenzuela -...

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Perspectives Paper Nicole Ureste-Valenzuela PSY/310 October 2, 2011 Brandi Reynolds Thanks to the many theoretical perspectives that have been introduced by scientists and psychologists throughout the years, psychology has become a diverse and thriving field. Significant theorists such as B.F. Skinner, Edward C. Tolman, and John B. Watson have shaped and contributed to modern-day psychology. Skinner and Watson were very adamant behaviorists. Their perspectives have had a long lasting influence on modern-day psychology. Within the realm of cognitive psychology lay Tolman’s contributions to modern-day society. He also touched upon behavioral aspects of psychology. B.F. Skinner, Edward C. Tolman, and John B. Watson have influenced modern-day psychology in many ways and they were important figures within the field of psychology. Skinner, Tolman, and Watson performed some experiments that were similar in nature however, each one of these men were unique in their conclusions and theories they conducted according to studies. Edward C. Tolman Edward C. Tolman’s perspectives and theories about psychology were greatly shaped by Gestalt psychology. Tolman did not believe that in order for a person to learn, there had to be some sort of positive or negative reinforcement. In other words, he contradicted the theory of conditioning. Tolman began conducting experiments involving latent learning. In order to test for latent learning, Tolman had to show and prove that even without a positive or negative reinforcement, learning would still take place. Like John B. Watson with his maze studies, Edward C. Tolman used rats for his experiments in an attempt to prove his theories about latent learning. In these experiments conducted with rats, Tolman demonstrated that instead of the rats learning from external stimuli such as food, the rats used a cognitive map to find their way though the maze (Goodwin, 2008).
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Edward C. Tolman leaned more towards cognitive psychology than he did the behavioral perspective of psychology unlike John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner. One of Edward C. Tolman’s biggest influences was one of his instructors at Harvard University, Edwin Holt. Holt’s perspective was that a subject’s behavior could not be reduced to glandular and muscular responses or to physical stimuli (Goodwin, 2008). Another theory that Tolman expressed was that a kinesthetic response was not the only factor
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Week 4; Perspectives Paper-Nicole Ureste-Valenzuela -...

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