Ethical Challenges in European Cultures
According to Dafoulas & Macaulay (2001), “Culture is the way of live of a particular
It constitutes things like sets of rules on manners, dressing codes, language, religion,
rituals, norms, and systems of belief” (p. 1).
Culture of a society can be looked at as constituting
four elements, which are passed on from one generation to the next through learning as Dafoulas
& Macaulay continues to say.
These are values, norms, artifacts, and institutions.
consists of thoughts about the important things in life as seen by a society, norms on the other
hand are expectations of behavior of people in different circumstances.
Cultural institutions are
organizations of the society through which norms and values are handed on while artifacts are
the physical things or materials, which represent a society’s cultural values and norms such as
buildings, a national flag, monuments, etc.
In a business organization, it could be prizes won in
challenges or the pioneer products of a company, which have special meanings, and there could
be stories told about them.
In a business organization, ceremonies and celebrations could be a
cultural element where these actions are performed repeatedly in specific situations and hold
specific meanings such as promotions and retirements, everyday events such as Christmas.
organization could also have heroes in its culture, which are used as epitomes and idealized so
the members can learn from them such as founders of an organization, or an officer who did a
The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Workforce Development Board (2002) says, “Attitudes
are an important cultural aspect in an organization where members display certain beliefs that tell
others where they belong” (p. 3).
Business and Economic Implications of Differences in Culture and Values
In understanding the actions of business organizations in Europe or elsewhere in the
world, culture is an important factor to consider.
The language used in the European culture is