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IT lecture 3 - Information Technology Information Basic...

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Unformatted text preview: Information Technology Information Basic Computer Architecture Adnan Khalid Basic Computer Architecture Basic Central Processing Central Unit Unit Input Input Device Device RAM Control Unit Output Output Device Device Arithmetic Logic Arithmetic Unit Unit Memory Unit Auxiliary Storage Storage Device Device Components of Computers Components Central Processing Unit Arithmetic and Logic Unit Control Unit Memory Unit Memory Memory Random Access Memory (RAM) Read Only Memory (ROM) Input and Output Devices Storage Devices The Central Processing Unit The The CPU is like the brain of the The computer. computer. It organizes the instructions It provided by the user or the software. software. The CPU consists of three parts The namely, Arithmetic and logic unit, Control Unit and Memory Unit. Unit. Arithmetic and Logic Unit Arithmetic All operations in a computer are All performed by the arithmetic and logic unit. unit. It performs two types of operations, It Arithmetic and Logical. Arithmetic Arithmetic operations are addition, Arithmetic subtraction, multiplication and division. division. Logical operations are < > and =. Control Unit Control The control unit (CU) controls The the flow of data from the main memory to the ALU and from the ALU to the main memory. the It is the stage manager of the It whole concert. whole Memory or Primary Storage Memory There are two types of primary There storage namely, storage Random Random Access Memory (RAM) and, and, Read Only Memory (ROM) Memory or Primary Storage Memory Random Access Memory Random RAM is an acronym for Random Access andom ccess Memory that is also known as volatile memory, emory because the data it holds is lost when the desktop PC or laptop/notebook computer desktop laptop/notebook using it is switched off. Briefly, RAM memory is used by the system to store data in the form of files for processing by a computer's central processing unit (CPU), also known as the processor. processor Types of RAM Types SRAM Short for static random access memory, and pronounced ess-ram. SRAM is a type of memory that is faster and more reliable than the more common DRAM (dynamic RAM). The term static is derived from the fact that it doesn't need to be refreshed like dynamic RAM. be DRAM stands for dynamic random DRAM access memory, a type of memory used in most personal computers. Read Only Memory Read Read Only Memory (ROM) is Read that memory which contains a set of start-up instructions called the Basic Input Output System (BIOS) for the computer. (BIOS) It is non-volatile i.e. it holds data It when the computer is turned off. when Types of ROM PROM short for programmable read-only memory A PROM PROM is a memory chip on which data can be written only once. Once a program has been written onto a PROM, it remains there forever. Unlike RAM, PROM's retain their contents when the computer is turned off. The difference between a PROM and a ROM (read-only memory) is that a PROM is manufactured as blank memory, whereas a ROM is programmed during the manufacturing process. To write data onto a PROM chip, you need a special device called a PROM programmer or PROM burner. The process of programming a PROM is sometimes called burning the PROM. burning EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory) is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. Once it is erased, it can be reprogrammed. An EEPROM is similar to a PROM, but requires only electricity to be erased. electricity EEPROM- Acronym for electrically erasable Acronym programmable read-only memory. Pronounced double-eeprogrammable prom or e-e-prom, an EEPROM is a special type of PROM prom that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge. Like other types of PROM, EEPROM retains its contents even when the power is turned off. Input and Output Devices Input The Devices used to enter The data into a computer are called Input Devices, while Input while those used to retrieve data from the computer are called Output Devices. Output Input Devices Input Keyboard Mouse Joystick Scanner Digital Camera Microphone Touch Screen Bar Code Reader Keyboard Keyboard The keyboard is a way to input letters or numbers into different applications or programs. A keyboard also has special keys that help operate the computer. Mouse Mouse The mouse is used to open and The close files, navigate web sites, and click on a lot of commands (to tell the computer what to do) when using different applications. Joystick Joystick A jjoystick is used to move the cursor oystick from place to place, and to click on various items in programs. A joystick is used mostly for computer games. Scanner Scanner A scanner is used to copy pictures or scanner other things and save them as files on the computer. Digital Camera Digital A digital camera can be used to take digital pictures. It can be hooked up to a computer to transfer the pictures from the camera to the computer. Some digital cameras hold a floppy disk, and the floppy disk can be taken out of the camera and put directly into the computer. Microphone Microphone A microphone is used to record microphone sound. The sound is then saved as a sound file on the computer. Touch Screen Touch A touch screen is a computer screen or touch other screen that you can touch with your finger to enter information. Examples of touch screens include a smart board, a microwave, a dishwasher, or an ATM at a bank. Barcode Reader Barcode A bar code scanner scans a little bar label that has a bar code on it. The information is then saved on the computer. Bar code scanners are used in libraries a lot. ...
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