IT lecture 4 - Information Technology Information Output...

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Unformatted text preview: Information Technology Information Output Devices Prof. Adnan Khalid Output Devices Output These devices display information that has been These held or generated within a computer. Some examples are shown below. examples VDU or Monitor VDU Printer Impact Printer Impact Non-Impact Printer Non-Impact Dot Matrix Printer Dot Daisywheel Printer Ink Jet Printer Ink Thermal Printer Thermal Laser Printer Laser Robot Machine Tool Machine Synthesized Voice Plotter Flatbed Plotter Flatbed Drum Plotter Drum Electrostatic Plotter Electrostatic Visual Display Unit or Monitor Visual Visual Display Units (VDU) or Visual monitors are used to visually interface with the computer and are similar in appearance to a television. A plasma monitor A cathode ray monitor cathode VDU and Pixels VDU Visual Display Units display Visual images and text which are made up of small blocks of colored light called pixels. The resolution pixels The of the screen improves as the number of pixels is increased. Most monitors have a 4:3 width to height ratio. to VDU and Resolution VDU The standard user interface on the PC was originally a text-only mode. With the increased resolution of VDUs applications are now written in graphics mode using individual pixels. A recent standard has been 640 x 480 pixels on the screen (this is called VGA) and the present standard is 800 x 600 (called SVGA). Diagram of different screen resolutions Diagram This has enabled the use of an increasingly sophisticated visual interface, utilizing graphical user interfaces (GUIs) such as Microsoft Windows and MAC OS as well as more highly developed user friendly software. Printers Printers You can print out information You that is in the computer onto paper. By printing you create what is known as a 'hard copy'. what There are different kinds of There printers which vary in their speed and print quality. The two main types of printer are impact and non-impact. impact non-impact Impact Printers Impact Impact Printers use a print head containing a number of metal pins which strike an inked ribbon placed between the print head and the paper. An impact printer showing detail of print head An Some print heads have only 9 pins to make the dots to build up a character; some have 24 pins which produce a better resolution. Dot Matrix Printers Dot Characters are formed from a matrix of dots. The speed is usually 30 - 550 characters per second (cps). This is the cheapest and noisiest of the printer family. The standard of print obtained is poor. A dot matrix printer These printers are cheap to run and relatively fast. They are useful for low quality carbon copy printing. Daisy Wheel Printer Daisy Molded metal characters like those in a typewriter are mounted Molded on extensions attached to a rotating wheel and are printed onto the paper by means of a hammer and print ribbon. A daisy wheel showing detail of the characters daisy This results in a great deal of movement and noise during the This printing of documents, so printing is slow (less than 90 cps). The standard of print is similar to that produced by an electric typewriter. As the characters on the wheel are fixed, the size and font can only be changed by using a different wheel. However, this is very rarely done. Non-Impact Printer Non-Impact Non-impact printers are much quieter than impact printers as their printing heads do not strike the paper. Most non-impact printers produce dotmatrix patterns. Several different technologies have been used to provide a variety of printers. The main types of non-impact printer are: Thermal Printer Thermal Laser Printer Laser Ink Jet Printer Ink Thermal Printers Thermal Characters are formed by heated elements being placed in contact with special heat sensitive paper forming darkened dots when the elements reach a critical temperature. A fax machine uses a thermal printer Thermal printer paper tends to darken over time due to exposure to sunlight and heat. The standard of print produced is poor. Laser Printer Laser Laser Printers use a laser beam and dry powdered ink to produce a fine dot matrix pattern. This method of printing can generate about 4 pages of A4 paper per minute. A laser printer The standard of print is very good and laser printers can also produce very good quality printed graphic images too. Inkjet Printers Inkjet Characters are formed as a result of electrically charged or heated ink being sprayed in fine jets onto the paper. Individual nozzles in the printing head produce high resolution (up to 400 dots per inch or 400 dpi) dot matrix characters. An inkjet printer Colour cartridge showing inkjet nozzles Inkjet printers use colour cartridges which combine magenta, yellow and cyan inks to create colour tones. A black cartridge is also used for crisp monochrome output. This method of printing can generate up to 200 cps and allows for good quality, cheap colour printing. Robots Robots Robots are able to perform a variety of tasks as a result of executing instructions contained within a program. We are still a long way from the science fiction robots and androids portrayed by the film industry. Robots in a business sense mean automated machines designed to perform mundane operations which require accuracy, such as assembling cars. They are seldom manufactured to resemble the human form. Machine Tools Machine Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) tools are used to manufacture a variety of products. Repetitive functions are controlled by sets of computer instructions. Machine tools automate factory production and have the advantage over humans of high accuracy, and they never require a coffee break! Voice Voice Voice synthesis has a robotic sound due to the difficulties of replicating the complexities of human speech and pronunciation. Voice answer back (VAB) is used to respond to telephone enquiries, such as the speaking clock. Educational applications include "Speak & Spell" and arithmetic trainers. Plotters Plotters Plotters are used to produce graphs or diagrams. Plotters can be of two types: Pen plotters Electrostatic plotters Pen plotters have an ink pen attached to draw the images, and electrostatic plotters work similarly to a laser printer. Flat bed Plotter Flat This is a plotter where the paper is fixed on a flat surface and pens are moved to draw the image. This plotter can use several different color pens to draw with. The size of the plot is limited only by the size of the plotter's bed. Top view of a flat bed plotter Drum Plotter Drum In drum plotters the pen is moved in a single axis track and the paper itself moves on a cylindrical drum to add the other axis or dimension. A drum plotter The size of the graph is therefore limited only by the width of the drum and can be of any length. Electrostatic Plotter Electrostatic An Electrostatic Plotter produces a raster image by charging the paper with a high voltage. This voltage attracts toner which is then melted into the paper with heat. This type of plotter is fast, but the quality is generally considered to be poor when compared to pen plotters. Questions Questions ...
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