Cognition Notes 1

Cognition Notes 1 - Perception 07:51

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Perception 07:51 The study of how the “contents” of the mind got there How we gain knowledge of reality Our only access to the world “outside” our body Some philosophers argued that there is no physical reality- only our ideas Most cognitive scientists agree that some aspects of ‘reality’ only occur in our heads How do we know that we share the same reality? Color blindness Blindness Deafness Schizophrenia Virtual reality Synaesthesia- phenomenon where people experience perceptual stimulation through  channels that they shouldn’t normally be? I.e. they see colors when they see certain  numbers.  When they hear a sound they experience a certain smell.  (cross senses… smelling agarbati and tasting rose gola) Characteristics of Perception Selective- limited range, voluntary attention Appropriate to the environment- adaptive Objective- defines reality Subjective- only partly data driven (what we like to see/what we expect to see, etc.) Controlled by “patterns”- responds only to change (change is needed to keep looking at  something otherwise you stop seeing it…jittering of the retina) Active- interpretive and requires stimulation 9/20/11- Lecture 3 (Perception) J J Gibson – “direct perception Perception a an adaptation to the environment
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 to facilitate action interactions with environment affordance- potential use of objects is perceivable Information Processing- Stages that construct an internal representation Computational- Mathematical and computer modeling Four Fields of Study: 1. Physiology 2. Psychophysics- relationship between our conscious experience and changes in the  stimulus 3. Perception- processes that build an internal representation (often unconscious) 4. Cognition- changes in perception due to learning, personality, etc. Physiology Elements of sensory systems- brain, nerves (neurons) Neuron Dendrites- receive info Cell Body- maintains cell Axon- transmits info to the next cell Synapse- gap between axon of one neuron and dendrites of another Action potential Firing All or none Every neuron Excitation and inhibition (axon hillock is where it starts based on the threshold- activity is  summed and determined if it exceeds threshold) Sensation
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Steps: 1. Reception absorption of physical energy 2.  Transduction physical energy is converted into an electrochemical pattern in the neurons 3.  Coding one-to-one correspondence between aspects of the physical stimulus and aspects of  the resultant nervous system activity  Neuron Every neuron speaks the same language: AP (action potential) How do we distinguish between different sensory input and intensities? Sensory Coding:
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2012 for the course PSYCH V89.0001 taught by Professor Amodio during the Fall '08 term at NYU.

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Cognition Notes 1 - Perception 07:51

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