Chapter 2 - Understanding Human Sexuality: Theory and...

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Understanding Human Sexuality: Theory and Research Chapter 2
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Chapter 2 Outline Theories About Sexuality Psychological theories Psychoanalytic theory Behavioral theory Social learning theory Cognitive theory Humanistic theory Evolutionary theory Biological theory Sociological theories Feminist theory Queer theory
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Chapter 2 Outline (Cont.) Sexuality Research: Philosophers, Physicians, and Sexologists Early sex research Recent studies on sexuality Politics and sex research Sexuality Research Early promoters of sexology Sexuality research moves to the U.S. Research studies on homosexuality Other sexuality studies Age-specific studies: teens and seniors
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Chapter 2 Outline (Cont.) Sex Research Methods and Considerations Case studies Questionnaires versus interviews Direct observation Participant observation Experimental methods Correlations
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Chapter 2 Outline (Cont.) Problems and Issues in Sex Research Ethical issues Volunteer bias Samplings problems Reliability Sexuality Research Across Cultures Sex Research in the Future: Beyond Problem-Driven Research
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Theory and Research Theories are the intellectual structure (assumptions, principles, methods) for understanding sexuality Research helps answer questions about human sexuality Many disciplines conduct research in sexuality, varying in the questions asked and scientific approaches taken
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Theories About Sexuality Many theories guide our thoughts about human sexuality Most theorists utilize multiple perspectives
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Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), the father of psychoanalysis, set the stage for all other psychological theories.
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Psychoanalytic Theory Freud (1856-1939) Most influential psychological theory of sexuality Sex drive is a very important life force Two controversial concepts: Personality formation Psychosexual development
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Personality Formation Two drives (motivations): Libido – life or sexual motivation Thanatos – death or aggressiveness motivation Two divisions to personality: Three levels of operation conscious, preconscious, unconscious Three guiding identities id, ego, superego
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Levels of Operation Conscious – information in awareness Preconscious – information within recall, but not in awareness Unconscious – inaccessible, the most important level of operation
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Guiding Identities Id – seeks immediate satisfaction Ego – operates in reality; balances id and superego Superego – values & restrictions; conscience Psychoanalysis required if ego does not balance id and superego Psychoanalysis brings unconscious thoughts into consciousness
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Basic personality formed within the first six years of life Stages of development Corresponding erogenous zones where libidinal energy is directed Unsuccessful progression through each
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Chapter 2 - Understanding Human Sexuality: Theory and...

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