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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Gender Development Gender Roles and...

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Chapter 4: Gender Development, Gender Roles, and Gender Identity
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Chapter 4 Outline Prenatal Development: X and Y Make the Difference Sexual Differentiation in the Womb Atypical Sexual Differentiation: Not Always Just X and Y Gender Roles and Gender Traits Girls Act Like Girls, Boys Act Like Boys Are Gender Roles Innate? Studying Gender
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Chapter 4 Outline (Cont.) Gender Role Theory Evolutionary Theory: Adapting to Our Environment Social Learning Theory: Learning from Our Environment Cognitive Development Theory: Age-State Learning Gender Schema Theory: Our Cultural Maps
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Chapter 4 Outline (Cont.) Varieties of Gender Masculinity: The Hunter Femininity: The Nurturer Androgyny: Feminine and Masculine Transgenderism: Living as the Other Sex Transsexualism: When Gender and Biology Don’t Agree Third Genders: Other Cultures, Other Options Asexualism: The Genetics but Not the Sex
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Chapter 4 Outline (Cont.) Gender Role Socialization from Infancy through Old Age Childhood: Learning by Playing Adolescence: Practice Being Female or Male Adulthood: Careers and Families The Senior Years Different but Not Less Than
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Gender and Sex Gender – refers to behavioral, psychological, and social characteristics of men and women Sex – refers to the biological aspects of being male or female Both nature and nurture are important in forming gender Case study: Dr. John Money and Brenda/Bruce
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Prenatal Development: X and Y Make the Difference Humans reproduce sexually and are made to be sexual beings Each parent supplies a gamete, each with half of the genetic information (23 chromosomes), including a sex chromosome Male: sperm (X or Y) Female: egg/ovum (X)
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Prenatal Development: X and Y Make the Difference (Cont.) Fertilization Haploid egg + Haploid sperm = Diploid zygote Sex is determined at conception Development of female or male sexual characteristics, usually Some developmental variations
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Sexual Differentiation in the Womb Gestation: 9 months 4-6 weeks: gonads begin to develop and sexual differentiation starts 1-2 weeks later Sex chromosomes control development of: internal sex organs external sex organs the embryo’s hormonal environment the brain’s sexual differentiation
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Internal Sex Organs 5 th – 6 th week: primitive gonads form 7 th – 8 th week: gonads become testes with Y chromosome and the SRY gene 10 th -11 th week: gonads become ovaries with absence of Y chromosome and SRY gene, and possibly the presence of ovarian hormones “Default setting” is female
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Internal Sex Organs (Cont.) 10 th -11 th week: primitive duct systems appear Müllerian duct (female) Wolffian duct (male) Their further development is hormonally controlled by the gonads
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Internal Sex Organs (Cont.) Female embryos: Lack male hormones and Wolffian duct degenerates Müllerian duct forms: uterus, inner third of vagina Male embryos: Müllerian inhibiting factor regresses the Müllerian duct Testosterone stimulates the Wolffian duct
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Figure 4.1 Development of the male and female internal reproductive systems from the undifferentiated stage. We discuss these specific structures more in Chapters 5 and 6.
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