Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: Gender Development, Gender Roles,...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4: Gender Development, Gender Roles, and Gender Identity Chapter 4 Outline Prenatal Development: X and Y Make the Difference Sexual Differentiation in the Womb Atypical Sexual Differentiation: Not Always Just X and Y Gender Roles and Gender Traits Girls Act Like Girls, Boys Act Like Boys Are Gender Roles Innate? Studying Gender Chapter 4 Outline (Cont.) Gender Role Theory Evolutionary Theory: Adapting to Our Environment Social Learning Theory: Learning from Our Environment Cognitive Development Theory: Age-State Learning Gender Schema Theory: Our Cultural Maps Chapter 4 Outline (Cont.) Varieties of Gender Masculinity: The Hunter Femininity: The Nurturer Androgyny: Feminine and Masculine Transgenderism: Living as the Other Sex Transsexualism: When Gender and Biology Dont Agree Third Genders: Other Cultures, Other Options Asexualism: The Genetics but Not the Sex Chapter 4 Outline (Cont.) Gender Role Socialization from Infancy through Old Age Childhood: Learning by Playing Adolescence: Practice Being Female or Male Adulthood: Careers and Families The Senior Years Different but Not Less Than Gender and Sex Gender refers to behavioral, psychological, and social characteristics of men and women Sex refers to the biological aspects of being male or female Both nature and nurture are important in forming gender Case study: Dr. John Money and Brenda/Bruce Prenatal Development: X and Y Make the Difference Humans reproduce sexually and are made to be sexual beings Each parent supplies a gamete, each with half of the genetic information (23 chromosomes), including a sex chromosome Male: sperm (X or Y) Female: egg/ovum (X) Prenatal Development: X and Y Make the Difference (Cont.) Fertilization Haploid egg + Haploid sperm = Diploid zygote Sex is determined at conception Development of female or male sexual characteristics, usually Some developmental variations Sexual Differentiation in the Womb Gestation: 9 months 4-6 weeks: gonads begin to develop and sexual differentiation starts 1-2 weeks later Sex chromosomes control development of: internal sex organs external sex organs the embryos hormonal environment the brains sexual differentiation Internal Sex Organs 5 th 6 th week: primitive gonads form 7 th 8 th week: gonads become testes with Y chromosome and the SRY gene 10 th-11 th week: gonads become ovaries with absence of Y chromosome and SRY gene, and possibly the presence of ovarian hormones Default setting is female Internal Sex Organs (Cont.) 10 th-11 th week: primitive duct systems appear Mllerian duct (female) Wolffian duct (male) Their further development is hormonally controlled by the gonads Internal Sex Organs (Cont.) Female embryos: Lack male hormones and Wolffian duct degenerates Mllerian duct forms: uterus, inner third of...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2012 for the course ACCT 201 and 20 taught by Professor Any during the Spring '12 term at Old Dominion.

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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: Gender Development, Gender Roles,...

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