Weather and Climate

Weather and Climate - Weather and Climate: lecture 1 00:40...

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Unformatted text preview: Weather and Climate: lecture 1 00:40 what can we measure about the atmosphere- temperature- pressure- humidity- wind speed- wind direction- chemical composition- Pressure: can be thought of as a measure of how much the atmosphere directly above you weighs. Pressure is measure by dividing the force (weight ) of the atmosphere by the area of the atmosphere- the pressure of the atmosphere changes from day to day- example of pressure: I feel under pressure when you have the weight of the world on your shoulders. weight of the world is the force and it is divided by the width of your shoulders, a finite area. What is the atmosphere made of?- you must begin answering this question by considering the origin of the universe- stars formed after the big bang- The universe was composed of hydrogen ( H) and Helium ( He) earths origional atmosphere - was composed of helium ( He), hydrogen ( H), methane ( CH4) and ammonia ( NH3)- today the composition of the atmosphere is different- Hydrogen and Helium are so light that they escaped the pull of the earths ravity- outgassing of water vapor H20 and carbon dioxide CO2 and Nitorgen ( N2) Earths second atmosphere -- is composed of methane ( CH4), ammonia ( NH3), nitrogen ( N2), carbon dioxide ( CO2), Argon ( Ar), water vapor ( H20), Neon ( Ne), Kyrpton ( Kr).-- earth cooled over time and this H2O vapor began to form clouds and it began to rain. -- this formed oceans, lakes and rivers -- As CO2 was gradually used up by these reservoirs the atmosphere became rich in nitrogen ( N2).-- then, 2-3 billion years ago primitive plants evolved in oceans.-- plants produce food by * photosynthesis*- in this form of photosynthesis you need 6 molecules of CO2 ,6 molecules of H2O ( liquid water) and sunshine. this forms C6H2O6 ( glucose).- life itself is responsible for supplying the oxygen to the atmosphere mixture.- then another chemical, Ozone ( O3) was produced.- Ozone is regulated by 2 reactions.- 1) O3 + UV light = O2 + O- 2) O2 + O = O3 Weather and Climate: lecture 2 00:40 Weather and Climate: lecture 2 00:40 O3+ UV light = O2+O O2+O= O3- Note the first reaction uses UV to spilt ozone- so ozone protects us all from these deadly UV rays life responds to the oxygen+ ozone produced by O3 + UV light mixture 1) life colonizes dry land. ( ozone protects it) 2) oxygen breathing animals can be BIG After all of this the current atmospheric composition is- N2 ( 75.5%)- O2 ( 23%)- Ar argon ((.3%)- CO2 ( .037%)- Ne neon ( 0.0012%)- He very small amount- Kr very small amound- H very small amount- O3 very small amount Weather and Climate: lecture 2...
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Weather and Climate - Weather and Climate: lecture 1 00:40...

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