Functional Neuroanatomy study guide

Functional Neuroanatomy study guide - Functional...

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Functional Neuroanatomy: So, let’s just start this review like we started the class. We started on the outside and we moved in. Once we get past your skull (also called cranium and the mandible). The mandible is your jaw bone and the cranium is the other bone structure. OK, lets take a chunk of cranium off. What do we see next? This hard, leathery casing that encases all the brain and spinal cord. It is called the dura , which is Spanish for hard! It’s sole job is to protect the brain and spinal cord from injury. Next we have this fluid filled space filled with cerebral spinal fluid. This is another form of protection of the brain from injury. Remember how Branden came down from the back of class and we rattled the eggs in the Tupperware containers. The fluid filled one did a lot better. The cerebral spinal fluid is produced by filtering the blood through the choroid plexus , which acts kind of like a colander when you pour pasta into it. There is a constant production of cerebral spinal fluid so it has to be reabsorbed back into the blood. You got big problems if this happens; the production does not match the reabsorption. This is what happens with meningitis. So watch out who you are kissing. The reabsorption happens at the arachnoid granulations. This arachonid granulations takes the reabsorbed cerebral spinal fluid and places it into the venous blood flowing through the dural sinus and this feeds back into the jugular vein. This old used up blood goes back to the heart so it can be pumped to the lungs to get a new load of oxygen. The new oxygenated blood goes back to the heart where it gets pumped out again into your arteries. The big arteries going to your brain are your carotid arteries in the front, and the vertebral arteries in the back. These arteries go up into the brain and eventually blend to form the anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. The biggest one of the bunch is the middle cerebral artery and consequently, it is the one that most often gets blocked during strokes. We next talked about two structures that are important in regulating our movement. Walking, eating, playing sports – you name it, they are involved in refining the movement. These two structures are called the cerebellum and the basal ganglia. The cerebellum’s job is to make second to second updates in your movement. These are super-rapid adjustments that you really do not have time to think about. The cerebellum gets a blueprint plan of the intended movement and then it samples input about your body position and how much your muscles are contracted (which ones and to what degree). This is the so called kinesthetic sense. Remember the whole error detection thing! The purkinjee cell. If the Cerebellum detects an error it sends out an immediate signal to correct the error. Remember the video of the old guy from England outside in the lawn chair. He tried to get up, but just sank to the ground. His kinesthetic sense was destroyed by some rare virus. The motor program was sent forth to stand up and go, but the lack
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2012 for the course BISC 230LXG taught by Professor Mcclure,greene during the Spring '08 term at USC.

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Functional Neuroanatomy study guide - Functional...

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