Lecture 6_CAO_330

Lecture 6_CAO_330 -...

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Unformatted text preview: !"#$"#!% &'()*+'%,% -.)/(0/12+./1%312%405/+/6537)% !"#$#%& -Mitochondia is aerobic bacteria because they c an metabolize oxygen -End up with an aerobic, heterotrophic prokaryote: still DNA floating in the c ytoplasm -Plasma membrane gets invaginated and pinches off, and a double membrane s tructure is formed where DNA goes==>proeukaryotic c ell Host bacteria is anerobic, does not use oxygen (heterotrophic) Aerobic bacteria engulfed by anaerobic, heterotrophic prokaryote Heterotroph: an organism that cannot fix carbon and used organic s ource/carbon for growth Autotrophic: photosynthesis and carbon fixation from CO2. Heterotrophic need to use organic source of carbon Animal, fungi, and some bacteria are heterotrophic Plant, algae, and some bacteria are autotrophic '#()*+)%,"#)%&)"&*+-)").-/0(&%11,0&.")(1#%0&02%(+10#31,&#%&)"$/%1--1&/%,&.")(1#%0& #4.)"(1,&5")4&*2()0)-6& Cannot only use their own protein products. Needs protein products of host cell DNA to carry out some of i ts functions #% !"#$"#!% -In matrix: DNA into RNA, and RNA into protein -Citric acid cycle also i n membrane -Inner membrane: where electron transport chain happens Outer membrane: evolved from host cell plasma membrane -During cell cycle, mitochondria has to elongate and then divide - 8)+*()*+'%/9%:.)/(0/12+./1% ;537<(.)=%/9%:.)/(0/12+./1% !% !"#$"#!% ?0'%+'53</170.6%@')A''1%:.)/(0/12+.3%312% :.(+/)*@*5'7% Closely associated with microtubules Left: mitochondrial protein staining, on the right is microtubule staining -Motor proteins involved transporting mitochondria along the microtubules? Interesting morphology of mitochondria on s perm because it is a c ontinuous structure s urrounding the flagellar axoneme, giving it a lot of energy to move around &/(35.B3</1%/9%:.)/(0/12+.3%1'3+%7.)'7%/9%0.C0%D?;% *<5.B3</1% Major function to synthesize ATP Which muscles need ATP? Our cardiac muscles, because our heats c ontract Myosin and actin in green: contract the muscles, and they need a lot of ATP. That's why a lot of mitochondria is aligned ?0'%:3E/+%1')%'1'+C=%(/1F'+7./1%(3)35=B'2%@=%)0'%:.)/(0/12+./1% Major generation of ATP Oxygen is needed, converted into water. ADP and phosphate with NADH into ATP Happen in inner membrane of mitochondria >% !"#$"#!% 8)+*()*+'%H%/+.C.1% I  [email protected]'%:':@+31'%% I  J37%.11'+%:':@+31'%9/52'2%.1)/%7)+*()*+'7%(355'2% (+.7)3'% I  J37%.)7%/A1%KLD%.17.2'%:3)+.M%NO(=)/6537:PQ% I  J37%6537<(.)=% I  431%2.F.2'%312%C+/A%%% I  R7%3%6+/2*()%/9%'12/7=:@./7.7% S*1(</1% 8.)'%/9%'5'()+/1%)+3176/+)%H%/M.23<F'%60/760/+=53</1% T  789&#0&."),:*1,&/0&/&"10:-(& T  U!%.7%(/17*:'2%.1%)0'%6+/('77% T  D57/%(355'2%!"#$%&'(+'76.+3</1%/+%/M.23<F'% 60/760/+=53</1% Plants have: CELL WALL VACUOLE CHLOROPLAST 405/+/6537)V%3%76'(.35%/+C31'55'%9/+% 60/)/7=1)0'7.7%.1%6531)%('557% 8+1&(+"11&,#0;%*(&414<"/%10&#%&*+-)").-/0(0& -Chloroplast has 3 different membranes: outer membrane (from host plasma membrane), inner membrane from photosynthetic cyanobacteria, then there is an intermembrane space called the GRANUM. Each sac is called a thylakoid, and what is inside of it is the thylakoid space -Stroma is the liquid in the chloroplasts, similar to the cytoplasm - G% ATP and NADPH is c reated from electron transfer reactions in thylakoid membrane, with i nput of H2O and output of O2. CO2 c omes in, combined with ATP and NADPH for carbon fixation reactions in s trome and creation of organic molecules Light energy is absorbed on the thylakoid membrane In photosynthesis, light energy is turned into chemical energy Light absorbed, energy passed what is floating in the stroma, c ombined with CO2 for carbon fixation --> organic molecules such as glucose !"#$"#!% %;0/)/7=1)0'7.7%)3X'7%653('%/1%)0=53X/.2% :':@+31'%% &.C0)%'1'+C=%YZ%(0':.(35%'1'+C=% J!U%.7%/M.2.B'2%312%U!%.7%+'5'37'2[% 4U!%.7%\M'2%)/%6+/2*('%7*C3+7%312% /)0'+%/+C31.(%:/5'(*5'7[% Own DNA floating around in 8)+*()*+'%H%/+.C.1% s troma I  [email protected]'%:':@+31'%% I  J37%)0=53X/.27% I  J37%.)7%/A1%KLD%.17.2'%7)+/:3%NO(=)/6537:PQ% I  431%2.F.2'%312%C+/A%%% I  R7%3%6+/2*()%/9%'12/7=:@./7.7% S*1(</1% 8.)'%/9%60/)/7=1)0'7.7% Compare: both originated from bacteria, both have DNA floating in cytosolic-like s pace, have ribosomes responsible for translating own genetic material from RNA to protein Contrast: different size, mitochondria is much smaller, different names for the c ytosol **Own product of DNA is not sufficient for their functions. Proteins needed to be i mported from the cell W% -Proteins imported to mitochondria and nucleus from cytosol -Transmembrane transport, proteins that either go into the lumen (inside) of the cell or become a part of the membrane !"#$"#!% =)>("/%0-/;)%/-&("/%0-)*/;)%&)5&?@&.")(1#%0& Two translocators in mitochondria, one for each membrane (TOM and TIM complexes) POST TRANSLATIONAL translocation '#()*+)%,"#)%&+/0&):(1"&/%,&#%%1"&414<"/%106&A)&#(&%11,0&(B)&("/%0-)*/()"06& 8+1&8!'&/%,&8C'&*)4.-1D106& 8+1&("/%0-)*/;)%&+/..1%0&7E8?@&.")(1#%&#0&*)4.-1(1-2&4/,1&F.)0(>("/%0-/;)%/-& ("/%0-)*/;)%G& Protein has to be fully made before translocation happens (different in ER, where i n ER translation and translocation can happen simultaneously) ,% !"#$"#!% ^_4D;% 8)+*()*+'`%9*1(</1%312%U+.C.1%/9%:.)/(0/12+.3%312%(05/+/6537)7[% ;/7)Y)+31753</135%)+3175/(3</1%9/+%6+/)'.17%)/%:.)/(0/12+.3[% 1. All functional DNA sequences inside a cell code for protein products: FALSE -False because they code for RNA. Regions for telomeres, centromeres, or regulatory sequences % ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course BSCI 330 taught by Professor Payne during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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