lecture2_CAO_330

lecture2_CAO_330 - Lecture 2. Cell structure Prokaryotes vs...

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1 Lecture 2. Cell structure •Prokaryotes vs eukaryotes •Origin of eukaryotic cells •Organelles in eukaryotes •Major macromolecules in eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic cell Where is the genetic material? Any cytoplasmic membrane organelles? • Any DNA-containing organelles? Epithelial cell (rat) E. coli Major Differences Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Genetic material In cytosol Inside membrane bound nucleus ATP production In plasma membrane In mitochondria and chloroplasts Membrane bound organelles No ER, Golgi, endosomes etc.
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2 What is the origin of eukaryotic cells? The Endosymbiont Theory The origin of mitochondria Evidence??? The origin of the nuclear envelop and ER Anaerobic bacteria engulfed aerobic bacteria. The origin of the chloroplasts in plant cells The ER and NE may evolved from the invaginations of PM of the ancestral prokaryotic cells. From photosynthetic bacteria. Evidence for Endosymbiosis 1. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts have their own DNA, similar to bacteria. 2. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts have double membranes. 3. Size of mitochondria is similar to bacteria. If mitochondria escape the modern day eukaryotic cells, can they survive? Know the Relative Sizes •Ribosomes (<100 nm) •Bacterium size ~ mitochondrion (1 um ) •Eukaryote cells: 10-20 X bigger •Virus: < 1/10 of a bacteria •Membrane thickness 5-10 nm Resolution Eye: 0.2 mm = 200 μ m Light Microscope: 0.2 μ m Electron Microscope: 1 nm
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3 Figure 1-30 Molecular Biology of the Cel , Fifth Edition (© Garland Science 2008) An Animal Cell A Plant Cell A fungal cell structurally resembles a plant cell, because it has a wall. But a fungal
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2012 for the course BSCI 330 taught by Professor Payne during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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lecture2_CAO_330 - Lecture 2. Cell structure Prokaryotes vs...

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