NFSC100 questions to ponder

NFSC100 questions to ponder - Carbohydrates 1. What are the...

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Carbohydrates 1. What are the functions of carbohydrates in the human body? Carbohydrates are the main source for energy for cells, they spare protein for energy, they add bulk to foods, and they provide fibers. The sources are grains, fruits and dairy products. Plants do not use all the energy stored in sugars, so it is available for animals. That is why carbohydrates are the first link in the food chain that supports all life on earth. 2. What is the difference between a simple and a complex carbohydrate? List the three disaccharides and the three monosaccharides. -Simple carbohydrates are sugars, and they are molecules with 6 carbons atoms and oxygen and hydrogen -Complex carbohydrates are starches and fiber. They are sometimes called polysaccharides and long chains of sugar units -Three types of monosaccharides: -Glucose: the body’s predominant fuel -Fructose: fruit sugar -Galactose: one of the two components of the milk sugar lactose -Three disaccharides -Sucrose: a combination of glucose and fructose -Lactose: a combination of glucose and galactose -Maltose: a combination of glucose and glucose -Monosaccharides get absorbed directly in the blood. Disaccharides need to be separated into monosaccharides first in the intestines -Blood delivers all the nutrients to the liver first, which uses enzymes to modify nutrients, making them useful to the body. Glucose is the most used one, so the liver quickly converts fructose or galactose to glucose and smaller molecules 3. What is the difference between starch, fiber, and glycogen? They are the same because they are all polysaccharides. Glycogen is animal starch, configured in long chains of glucose molecules, and it is the body’s storage form of carbohydrates. This is how glucose is stored in animals. It is similar to starch because glucose molecules are linked together, but the difference is that its chains are longer and more branched. Therefore, glycogen is undetectable in meats because glycogen breaks down when an animal is slaughtered. Starch from plant sources. Starch clusters in plant is stored as a plant matures. It is useful because it is nutritive for people, who can digest the starch to glucose and extract the sun’s energy stored in its chemical bonds. Fiber is plant material, and is long chains of glucose molecules whose structure is resistant to enzymatic degradation. Fiber makes up cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. Different from starch because the sugars are held together by bonds that the human digestive enzymes cannot break. That is why they pass by the body without providing energy for its use.
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4. What are the benefits of consuming high fiber foods? -Liver uses blood cholesterol to make bile, gallbladder stores bile, and in the intestine, the bile aids digestion, binding to fiber. Then both the fiber and bile are excreted as feces, or a little cholesterol in bile reabsorbed into the blood. With a low-fiber diet, bile aids digestion in the intestine, and much of the cholesterol in bile is reabsorbed into the blood, whereas little bile is
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NFSC100 questions to ponder - Carbohydrates 1. What are the...

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