NFSC lecture notes

NFSC lecture notes - 20:40 Whatisnutritionalscience?

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20:40 What is nutritional science? Nutritional Sciences : are the study of nutrients in food and the body, also the human  behaviors related to food Nutrients  are the components of food that are required for the body’s basic functioning The essential idea is what you eat will become a part of your body “Your body is a Temple, treat as it is” Why is nutrition classified as  science It uses the scientific method to uncover unknown nutrition facts New findings must be repeated before they can be considered valid New findings must withstand the test of time Scientific method Observations Formulate hypothesis Best guess to explain previous observations Test hypothesis Different study designs Evaluate study results Compare to original hypothesis
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1. Not proven (revise hypothesis); 2. Proven (become a theory) Research designs are used to collect evidence to test a hypothesis Case studies (individuals) Cohort studies (a group of people) Epidemiological studies (populations, correlation of dietary habits vs. disease incidence) Intervention studies (clinical trials: a gold standard in terms of proving cause and effect) Laboratory studies Food labeling Nutrition labeling and education act 1990 (NLEA) Established which foods should be labeled Processed, packaged foods regulated by FDA must carry nutrition labeling USDA labeling for packaged meat and poultry products  Serving sizes are standardized (but by weight) NLEA also requires that. .. Label emphasizes calories, fat, cholesterol, sodium, and fiber Vitamins: A and C
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Minerals: calcium and iron The Nutrition Label Serving size Daily Value Daily intake of a nutrient recommended for one day,  based on a 2,000 calorie diet Example : Label says “% Daily Value” for total fat is 30% This means that in ONE serving of that food, you will get 30% of all the fat you need for  one day  10/20 rule for daily value Below 10% is considered low, or poor source A good source: 10-19% of the daily value per serving 20% is considered high, or an excellent source Different depending upon whether the nutrient is beneficial or detrimental to health  NLEA also requires Ingredient statement is required; in descending order, by weight
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Terms are now defined: free, low, reduced Health claims are allowed in some cases. FDA approved claims must meet specific  criteria Claims on labels Nutrient claims (table 2-6) Health claims (table 2-7) Structure function claims (case by case, need additional scientific evidence and FDA  approval) Examples of nutrient claims Fat free: < 0.5 gram of fat per serving Low fat: up to 3 grams of fat per serving “less, fewer, reduced” : At least 35% less of a nutrient or calories than a reference food
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NFSC lecture notes - 20:40 Whatisnutritionalscience?

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