Lecture 10_Modern Metaphysics (Descartes and Spinoza)

Lecture 10_Modern Metaphysics (Descartes and Spinoza) -...

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Modern Metaphysics (Part 1) 1. Rene Descartes a. Descartes attempts to rectify Aristotle’s ideas as they had been applied to religion (for example, the concern with teleology) with modern science as developed by Copernicus and Galileo. Also, in modern metaphysics the notion of mind or consciousness was introduced. Idealism is the view that what the world is made of, the ultimate reality of things, is the mind. At the center of Descartes’ metaphysics is Aristotle’s conception of substance: “a thing existing in such a manner that it has need of no other thing in order to exist.” He divides the world into three sorts of substances: God, the mind, and physical, material being. b. Descartes begins with a proof of the existence of the world that rests on the presumption of God’s goodness. Because God is rational and good, we can trust our limited knowledge of the world, but because the world depends on God, there is no danger that science will leave us with a godless universe. c. Within the domain of nature there are mind and body . These two substances are distinct and independent. Cartesian dualism allows for both religion and new science; they cannot contradict each other because they apply to different domains. The mind is free and explained by theology, and the body is explained
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Lecture 10_Modern Metaphysics (Descartes and Spinoza) -...

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