Lecture 8_The Way the World Really Is

Lecture 8_The Way the World Really Is - The Way the World...

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“The Way the World Really Is” i. Western philosophy is said to begin with Thales . He suggested that the source of everything is water. ii. This claim is remarkable because it is one of the first recorded attempts to describe “the way the world really is,” beyond all appearances. iii. This marks not only the beginning of philosophy but also the beginning of Western science. Thales was one of the first thinkers to provide an explanation in terms of laws and abstract generalizations. The First Greek Philosophers i. The way in which we interpret the world is not necessarily the way that the world really is. Give scientific examples. ii. Before the dawn of modern science, philosophers posited views about reality. 1. The Ionian Naturalists a. Ionians are considered to be pre-Socratics and lived in the sixth and fifth centuries B . C . E . in and around Greece. This is the group that Thales belongs to. Thales’ belief that everything is water was challenged by his first student, Anaximander. b. Anaximander : Anaximander argued that ultimate reality could not be composed of any of the then-known elements—earth, air, fire, or water. He proposed that the ultimate nature of reality is something else, apeiron . Apeiron is translated as “the indefinite.” The apeiron is a chaos or a void, which yields the variety of things in the world. c. Anaximander’s student Anaximenes thought that the notion of apeiron is too mysterious and decided that everything is composed of air. He believed that
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2012 for the course PHI 2010 taught by Professor Tacks during the Spring '12 term at Florida State College.

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Lecture 8_The Way the World Really Is - The Way the World...

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